Objective To investigate association between adolescent depressive symptoms with circadian rhythm and emotion regulation strategies, and to provide the basis for mental health education for depression.
Methods CES–D, Morning and Evening Questionnaire-5 (MEQ–5) and Emotion Regulation scale (ERS) were administered to 2 398 students from 6 middle schools in Chengdu, Langzhong and Leshan of Sichuan Province. SPSS 21.0 was used to data processing and anlysis.
Results About 37.9% (909/2 398) of adolescents reported depressive symptoms. Prevalence of depressive symptom was higher in female students (χ 2=25.15, P<0.01), rural adolescents (χ 2=15.45, P<0.01), adolescents aged 15–18 compared to aged 12–14 (χ 2 187.24, P<0.01). There was significant difference in rate of depressive symptoms among adolescents with different circadian rhythms (χ 2=55.19, P<0.01), with definite evening rhythm preference was the highest (57.1%). Prevalence of depressive symptoms significantly varied by sleep duration (χ 2=141.99, P<0.01), and were highest in adolescents with sleep duration <6 h (69.4%). The scores of suppression dimension in depressed adolescents were significantly higher than that of non-depressive group, while the scores of reappraisal dimension were significantly higher in non-depressive group than that of depressive group. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that gender ( OR=1.60), age ( OR=2.29), suppression ( OR=1.13), sleep duration <6 h ( OR=5.17), sleep duration 6–8 h ( OR=2.88) were positively associated with depressive symptoms in adolescents. Moderate type ( OR=0.53), morning type ( OR=0.55) and cognitive reappraisal ( OR=0.90) were associated with lower rate of depressive symptoms ( P<0.05).
Conclusion Sleep rhythm delay, lack of sleep and emotion suppression in adolescents are associated with higher risk for depression. Regular sleep habits and reasonable emotion regulation might help to prevent adolescent depression.
【摘要】 目的 了解中学生抑郁情绪的现状以及与昼夜节律、情绪调节的关联, 为改善青少年抑郁情绪的心理健康宣教 提供科学依据。 方法 采用方便抽样法, 抽取四川成都、阆中和乐山6所中学2 398名初、高中学生为被试, 采用抑郁量表 (CES–D)、清晨型与夜晚型量表简版和情绪调节量表进行调查, 运用 SPSS 21.0 进行数据处理和分析。 结果 青少年抑郁 症状检出率为 37.9%(909名), 女生、农村、15~18 岁年龄组青少年的抑郁症状检出率高于男生、城镇、12~14 岁年龄组 (χ 2 值分别为 25.15, 15.45, 187.24, P值均<0.01)。不同昼夜节律青少年抑郁症状检出率差异有统计学意义(χ 2=55.19, P<0.01), 绝对夜晚型节律偏好青少年抑郁检出率(57.1%)最高。不同睡眠时长青少年抑郁症状检出率差异有统计学意义 (χ 2=141.99, P<0.01), 睡眠时长 <6 h/d 抑郁检出率(69.4%)最高。抑郁组较无抑郁组更多使用表达抑制策略, 而无抑郁 组较抑郁组更多使用认知重评策略。多因素Logistic回归分析结果显示, 女生、15~18 岁组、表达抑制、睡眠时长<6 h/d、睡 眠时长 6~8 h/d与青少年出现抑郁症状呈正相关( OR 值分别为 1.60, 2.29, 1.13, 5.17, 2.88), 而睡眠时型中间型、清晨型和 认知重评与抑郁症状呈负相关( OR 值分别为 0.53, 0.55, 0.90) ( P值均<0.05)。 结论 青少年睡眠节律延迟、睡眠不足以 及压抑情绪与抑郁症状呈正相关, 应积极倡导青少年养成良好的睡眠习惯, 采用合理的情绪调节方式, 以减少青少年的抑 郁状况。