Objective Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive disease with highly invasive nature and poor outcomes. Due to the absence of specific treatment strategies for this tumor subgroup, patients with TNBC are treated with conventional therapeutics, frequently leading to systemic relapse. In this study, we sought to investigate apatinib combined with conventional chemotherapy regimens in treating patients with advanced TNBC concerning the efficacy, safety, expressions of tumor markers, and patient survival. Methods This is a prospective study including 150 cases of advanced TNBC who were randomly arranged into a conventional group and combined group, with 75 cases per group. The patients in the conventional group were treated with conventional chemotherapy, and those in the combined group were treated with apatinib combined with conventional chemotherapy. The peripheral blood was collected from each patient, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 153 (CA153), and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) were determined. The expressions of nuclear proliferation antigen marker (Ki67), β -catenin, and E-cadherin were determined in the biopsy collected from each patient. Results The objective remission rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) (41.33% and 81.33%) in the combined group were notably higher than those in the conventional group (29.33% and 68.00%) ( P < 0.05). After treatment, the serum levels of CEA, CA153, and CA125 and the expressions of Ki67 and β -catenin were declined, but the expression of E-cadherin was increased in both groups; the combined group exhibited lower serum levels of CEA, CA153, and CA125, and the expressions of Ki67 and β -catenin were concurrent with a higher expression of E-cadherin than the conventional group ( P < 0.05). No significant difference was noted between the two groups regarding the occurrence of adverse reactions ( P > 0.05). Improved progression-free survival (PFS) was observed in the combined group compared to the conventional group ( P < 0.05. Conclusion These findings suggest that apatinib combined with conventional chemotherapy regimens confers a prolonged PFS for treating patients with advanced TNBC.