The prefrontal cortex is involved in the cognitive process of working memory. Local injections of SCH23390 and SCH39166, selective antagonists of the D1 dopamine receptor, into the prefrontal cortex of rhesus monkeys induced errors and increased latency in performance on an oculomotor task that required memory-guided saccades. The deficit was dose-dependent and sensitive to the duration of the delay period. These D1 antagonists had no effect on performance in a control task requiring visually guided saccades, indicating that sensory and motor functions were unaltered. Thus, D1 dopamine receptors play a selective role in the mnemonic, predictive functions of the primate prefrontal cortex.