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      Prandial Options to Advance Basal Insulin Glargine Therapy: Testing Lixisenatide Plus Basal Insulin Versus Insulin Glulisine Either as Basal-Plus or Basal-Bolus in Type 2 Diabetes: The GetGoal Duo-2 Trial.

      Diabetes Care
      American Diabetes Association

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          Abstract

          To provide evidence-based options on how to intensify basal insulin, we explored head-to-head prandial interventions in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on basal insulin glargine with or without 1-3 oral antidiabetic agents (OADs).

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          GLP-1 receptor agonists for individualized treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

          In healthy humans, the incretin glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is secreted after eating and lowers glucose concentrations by augmenting insulin secretion and suppressing glucagon release. Additional effects of GLP-1 include retardation of gastric emptying, suppression of appetite and, potentially, inhibition of β-cell apoptosis. Native GLP-1 is degraded within ~2-3 min in the circulation; various GLP-1 receptor agonists have, therefore, been developed to provide prolonged in vivo actions. These GLP-1 receptor agonists can be categorized as either short-acting compounds, which provide short-lived receptor activation (such as exenatide and lixisenatide) or as long-acting compounds (for example albiglutide, dulaglutide, exenatide long-acting release, and liraglutide), which activate the GLP-1 receptor continuously at their recommended dose. The pharmacokinetic differences between these drugs lead to important differences in their pharmacodynamic profiles. The short-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists primarily lower postprandial blood glucose levels through inhibition of gastric emptying, whereas the long-acting compounds have a stronger effect on fasting glucose levels, which is mediated predominantly through their insulinotropic and glucagonostatic actions. The adverse effect profiles of these compounds also differ. The individual properties of the various GLP-1 receptor agonists might enable incretin-based treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus to be tailored to the needs of each patient.
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            The treat-to-target trial: randomized addition of glargine or human NPH insulin to oral therapy of type 2 diabetic patients.

            To compare the abilities and associated hypoglycemia risks of insulin glargine and human NPH insulin added to oral therapy of type 2 diabetes to achieve 7% HbA(1c). In a randomized, open-label, parallel, 24-week multicenter trial, 756 overweight men and women with inadequate glycemic control (HbA(1c) >7.5%) on one or two oral agents continued prestudy oral agents and received bedtime glargine or NPH once daily, titrated using a simple algorithm seeking a target fasting plasma glucose (FPG)
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              Modern-day clinical course of type 1 diabetes mellitus after 30 years' duration: the diabetes control and complications trial/epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications and Pittsburgh epidemiology of diabetes complications experience (1983-2005).

              Clinical treatment goals of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have changed since the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) demonstrated reduced long-term complications with intensive diabetes therapy. There have been few longitudinal studies to describe the clinical course of T1DM in the age of intensive therapy. Our objective was to describe the current-day clinical course of T1DM. An analysis of the cumulative incidence of long-term complications was performed. The DCCT (1983-1993) assigned patients to conventional or intensive therapy. Since 1993, the DCCT has been observational, and intensive therapy was recommended for all patients. The Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications (EDC) study is an observational study of patients with T1DM from Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The study population comprised the DCCT T1DM cohort (N = 1441) and a subset of the EDC cohort (n = 161) selected to match DCCT entry criteria. In the DCCT, intensive therapy aimed for a near-normal glycemic level with 3 or more daily insulin injections or an insulin pump. Conventional therapy, with 1 to 2 daily insulin injections, was not designed to achieve specific glycemic targets. Main outcome measures included the incidences of proliferative retinopathy, nephropathy (albumin excretion rate >300 mg/24 h, creatinine level >or=2 mg/dL [to convert to micromoles per liter, multiply by 88.4], or renal replacement), and cardiovascular disease. After 30 years of diabetes, the cumulative incidences of proliferative retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease were 50%, 25%, and 14%, respectively, in the DCCT conventional treatment group, and 47%, 17%, and 14%, respectively, in the EDC cohort. The DCCT intensive therapy group had substantially lower cumulative incidences (21%, 9%, and 9%) and fewer than 1% became blind, required kidney replacement, or had an amputation because of diabetes during that time. The frequencies of serious complications in patients with T1DM, especially when treated intensively, are lower than that reported historically.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                27222510
                10.2337/dc16-0014

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