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      Lipid mediators in plasma of autism spectrum disorders

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          Abstract

          Background

          Inflammation is increasingly recognized as being of both physiological and pathological importance in the immature brain. Cerebellar pathology occurs in autism, as a neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic and environmental origins. The genesis of this disorder is still not understood but inflammation in utero or early in childhood is an environmental risk factor.

          Methods

          Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cysteinyl leukotriene as two important lipid mediators together with 8 isoprostane as marker of oxidative stress were measured using ELISA in plasma of 20 male autistic patients compared to 19 age and gender matching control participants.

          Results

          PGE2, leukotrienes and isoprostanes recorded significantly elevated levels in autistics compared to controls. Role of these measured parameters in inflammation and autoimmunity as two etiological factors in autism were discussed in details.

          Conclusion

          Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis shows satisfactory values of area under the curve (AUC) which could reflect the high degree of specificity and sensitivity of the altered PGE2, leukotrienes and isoprostanes as predictive biomarkers in autistic patients from Saudi Arabia.

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          Most cited references 40

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          A review of research trends in physiological abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders: immune dysregulation, inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and environmental toxicant exposures

           D Rossignol,  R Frye (2011)
          Recent studies have implicated physiological and metabolic abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other psychiatric disorders, particularly immune dysregulation or inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and environmental toxicant exposures (‘four major areas'). The aim of this study was to determine trends in the literature on these topics with respect to ASD. A comprehensive literature search from 1971 to 2010 was performed in these four major areas in ASD with three objectives. First, publications were divided by several criteria, including whether or not they implicated an association between the physiological abnormality and ASD. A large percentage of publications implicated an association between ASD and immune dysregulation/inflammation (416 out of 437 publications, 95%), oxidative stress (all 115), mitochondrial dysfunction (145 of 153, 95%) and toxicant exposures (170 of 190, 89%). Second, the strength of evidence for publications in each area was computed using a validated scale. The strongest evidence was for immune dysregulation/inflammation and oxidative stress, followed by toxicant exposures and mitochondrial dysfunction. In all areas, at least 45% of the publications were rated as providing strong evidence for an association between the physiological abnormalities and ASD. Third, the time trends in the four major areas were compared with trends in neuroimaging, neuropathology, theory of mind and genetics (‘four comparison areas'). The number of publications per 5-year block in all eight areas was calculated in order to identify significant changes in trends. Prior to 1986, only 12 publications were identified in the four major areas and 51 in the four comparison areas (42 for genetics). For each 5-year period, the total number of publications in the eight combined areas increased progressively. Most publications (552 of 895, 62%) in the four major areas were published in the last 5 years (2006–2010). Evaluation of trends between the four major areas and the four comparison areas demonstrated that the largest relative growth was in immune dysregulation/inflammation, oxidative stress, toxicant exposures, genetics and neuroimaging. Research on mitochondrial dysfunction started growing in the last 5 years. Theory of mind and neuropathology research has declined in recent years. Although most publications implicated an association between the four major areas and ASD, publication bias may have led to an overestimation of this association. Further research into these physiological areas may provide insight into general or subset-specific processes that could contribute to the development of ASD and other psychiatric disorders.
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            Measurement of F(2)-isoprostanes as an index of oxidative stress in vivo.

            In 1990 we discovered the formation of prostaglandin F(2)-like compounds, F(2)-isoprostanes (F(2)-IsoPs), in vivo by nonenzymatic free radical-induced peroxidation of arachidonic acid. F(2)-IsoPs are initially formed esterified to phospholipids and then released in free form. There are several favorable attributes that make measurement of F(2)-IsoPs attractive as a reliable indicator of oxidative stress in vivo: (i) F(2)-IsoPs are specific products of lipid peroxidation; (ii) they are stable compounds; (iii) levels are present in detectable quantities in all normal biological fluids and tissues, allowing the definition of a normal range; (iv) their formation increases dramatically in vivo in a number of animal models of oxidant injury; (v) their formation is modulated by antioxidant status; and (vi) their levels are not effected by lipid content of the diet. Measurement of F(2)-IsoPs in plasma can be utilized to assess total endogenous production of F(2)-IsoPs whereas measurement of levels esterified in phospholipids can be used to determine the extent of lipid peroxidation in target sites of interest. Recently, we developed an assay for a urinary metabolite of F(2)-IsoPs, which should provide a valuable noninvasive integrated approach to assess total endogenous production of F(2)-IsoPs in large clinical studies.
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              A series of prostaglandin F2-like compounds are produced in vivo in humans by a non-cyclooxygenase, free radical-catalyzed mechanism.

              Increasing attention has focused on the role of free radicals derived from oxygen in the pathophysiology of a wide variety of disorders. One of the well-recognized targets of free radical-induced injury is peroxidation of lipids. Using a variety of approaches, we have found that a series of prostaglandin F2-like compounds are produced in vivo in humans by a non-cyclooxygenase mechanism involving free radical-catalyzed peroxidation of arachidonic acid. Levels of these compounds in normal human plasma and urine range from 5 to 40 pg/ml and 500 to 4000 pg/mg of creatinine, respectively. In rats, their formation was found to increase as much as 200-fold in association with marked free radical-catalyzed lipid peroxidation induced by administration of CCl4 and diquat. To explore whether these prostanoids can exert biological activity, the effects of one of the compounds formed by this mechanism, 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha, was examined in the kidney in the rat. Infusion of 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha into a peripheral vein (5 micrograms/kg per min) or intrarenally (0.5-2.0 micrograms/kg per min) resulted in marked parallel reductions in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. That the formation of these prostanoids is catalyzed by free radicals and that they can exert potent biological activity suggest that these prostanoids may participate as pathophysiological mediators in oxidant injury. Quantification of these compounds may also provide a noninvasive approach to assess oxidant status in humans. That the formation of these prostanoids occurs independent of the catalytic activity of the cyclooxygenase enzyme suggests that there may be limitations at times regarding the reliability of the use of cyclooxygenase inhibitors to assess the role of prostaglandins in certain pathophysiological processes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Lipids Health Dis
                Lipids Health Dis
                Lipids in Health and Disease
                BioMed Central
                1476-511X
                2012
                21 November 2012
                : 11
                : 160
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Biochemistry Department, Science College, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [2 ]Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [3 ]Autism Research and Treatment Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                [4 ]Shaik AL-Amodi Autism Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
                Article
                1476-511X-11-160
                10.1186/1476-511X-11-160
                3557222
                23170784
                Copyright ©2012 El-Ansary and Al-Ayadhi; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research

                Biochemistry

                leukotrienes, isoprostane, prostaglandins, autism, arachidonic acid, inflammation

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