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      The Risk of Cancer Associated with Specific Mutations ofBRCA1andBRCA2among Ashkenazi Jews

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          Abstract

          Carriers of germ-line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 from families at high risk for cancer have been estimated to have an 85 percent risk of breast cancer. Since the combined frequency of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations exceeds 2 percent among Ashkenazi Jews, we were able to estimate the risk of cancer in a large group of Jewish men and women from the Washington, D.C., area. We collected blood samples from 5318 Jewish subjects who had filled out epidemiologic questionnaires. Carriers of the 185delAG and 5382insC mutations in BRCA1 and the 6174delT mutation in BRCA2 were identified with assays based on the polymerase chain reaction. We estimated the risks of breast and other cancers by comparing the cancer histories of relatives of carriers of the mutations and noncarriers. One hundred twenty carriers of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation were identified. By the age of 70, the estimated risk of breast cancer among carriers was 56 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 40 to 73 percent); of ovarian cancer, 16 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 6 to 28 percent); and of prostate cancer, 16 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 4 to 30 percent). There were no significant differences in the risk of breast cancer between carriers of BRCA1 mutations and carriers of BRCA2 mutations, and the incidence of colon cancer among the relatives of carriers was not elevated. Over 2 percent of Ashkenazi Jews carry mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 that confer increased risks of breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer. The risks of breast cancer may be overestimated, but they fall well below previous estimates based on subjects from high-risk families.

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          Localization of a breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA2, to chromosome 13q12-13

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            Risks of cancer in BRCA1-mutation carriers

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              The complete BRCA2 gene and mutations in chromosome 13q-linked kindreds.

              Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy among women in developed countries. Because family history remains the strongest single predictor of breast cancer risk, attention has focused on the role of highly penetrant, dominantly inherited genes in cancer-prone kindreds (1). BRCA1 was localized to chromosome 17 through analysis of a set of high-risk kindreds (2), and then identified four years later by a positional cloning strategy (3). BRCA2 was mapped to chromosomal 13q at about the same time (4). Just fifteen months later, Wooster et al. (5) reported a partial BRCA2 sequence and six mutations predicted to cause truncation of the BRCA2 protein. While these findings provide strong evidence that the identified gene corresponds to BRCA2, only two thirds of the coding sequence and 8 out of 27 exons were isolated and screened; consequently, several questions remained unanswered regarding the nature of BRCA2 and the frequency of mutations in 13q-linked families. We have now determined the complete coding sequence and exonic structure of BRCA2 (GenBank accession #U43746), and examined its pattern of expression. Here, we provide sequences for a set of PCR primers sufficient to screen the entire coding sequence of BRCA2 using genomic DNA. We also report a mutational analysis of BRCA2 in families selected on the basis of linkage analysis and/or the presence of one or more cases of male breast cancer. Together with the specific mutations described previously, our data provide preliminary insight into the BRCA2 mutation profile.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                May 15 1997
                May 15 1997
                : 336
                : 20
                : 1401-1408
                Article
                10.1056/NEJM199705153362001
                9145676
                40acd375-385e-465d-8b08-668ce91515e6
                © 1997
                History

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