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      Designing biologic selectivity for inflammatory bowel disease – role of vedolizumab

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          Abstract

          Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are two chronic inflammatory bowel conditions. Current approved biologic therapies are limited to blocking tumor necrosis factor alpha. Unfortunately, some patients are primary nonresponders, experiencing a loss of response, intolerance, or side effects. This defines an unmet need for novel therapeutic strategies. The rapid recruitment and inappropriate retention of leukocytes is a hallmark of chronic inflammation and a potentially promising therapeutic target. Here we discuss the clinical trial results of vedolizumab (anti-α4β7, LDP-02, MLN-02, and MLN0002) and its impact on future management of inflammatory bowel disease.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Infliximab for induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis.

          Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against tumor necrosis factor alpha, is an established treatment for Crohn's disease but not ulcerative colitis. Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies--the Active Ulcerative Colitis Trials 1 and 2 (ACT 1 and ACT 2, respectively)--evaluated the efficacy of infliximab for induction and maintenance therapy in adults with ulcerative colitis. In each study, 364 patients with moderate-to-severe active ulcerative colitis despite treatment with concurrent medications received placebo or infliximab (5 mg or 10 mg per kilogram of body weight) intravenously at weeks 0, 2, and 6 and then every eight weeks through week 46 (in ACT 1) or week 22 (in ACT 2). Patients were followed for 54 weeks in ACT 1 and 30 weeks in ACT 2. In ACT 1, 69 percent of patients who received 5 mg of infliximab and 61 percent of those who received 10 mg had a clinical response at week 8, as compared with 37 percent of those who received placebo (P<0.001 for both comparisons with placebo). A response was defined as a decrease in the Mayo score of at least 3 points and at least 30 percent, with an accompanying decrease in the subscore for rectal bleeding of at least 1 point or an absolute rectal-bleeding subscore of 0 or 1. In ACT 2, 64 percent of patients who received 5 mg of infliximab and 69 percent of those who received 10 mg had a clinical response at week 8, as compared with 29 percent of those who received placebo (P<0.001 for both comparisons with placebo). In both studies, patients who received infliximab were more likely to have a clinical response at week 30 (P< or =0.002 for all comparisons). In ACT 1, more patients who received 5 mg or 10 mg of infliximab had a clinical response at week 54 (45 percent and 44 percent, respectively) than did those who received placebo (20 percent, P<0.001 for both comparisons). Patients with moderate-to-severe active ulcerative colitis treated with infliximab at weeks 0, 2, and 6 and every eight weeks thereafter were more likely to have a clinical response at weeks 8, 30, and 54 than were those receiving placebo. (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00036439 and NCT00096655.) Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Genome-wide association study of ulcerative colitis identifies three new susceptibility loci, including the HNF4A region.

            Ulcerative colitis is a common form of inflammatory bowel disease with a complex etiology. As part of the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2, we performed a genome-wide association scan for ulcerative colitis in 2,361 cases and 5,417 controls. Loci showing evidence of association at P < 1 x 10(-5) were followed up by genotyping in an independent set of 2,321 cases and 4,818 controls. We find genome-wide significant evidence of association at three new loci, each containing at least one biologically relevant candidate gene, on chromosomes 20q13 (HNF4A; P = 3.2 x 10(-17)), 16q22 (CDH1 and CDH3; P = 2.8 x 10(-8)) and 7q31 (LAMB1; P = 3.0 x 10(-8)). Of note, CDH1 has recently been associated with susceptibility to colorectal cancer, an established complication of longstanding ulcerative colitis. The new associations suggest that changes in the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier may contribute to the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.
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              Natalizumab induction and maintenance therapy for Crohn's disease.

              Natalizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against alpha4 integrin, inhibits leukocyte adhesion and migration into inflamed tissue. We conducted two controlled trials to evaluate natalizumab as induction and maintenance therapy in patients with active Crohn's disease. In the first trial, 905 patients were randomly assigned to receive 300 mg of natalizumab or placebo at weeks 0, 4, and 8. The primary outcome was response, defined by a decrease in the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) score of at least 70 points, at week 10. In the second trial, 339 patients who had a response to natalizumab in the first trial were randomly reassigned to receive 300 mg of natalizumab or placebo every four weeks through week 56. The primary outcome was a sustained response through week 36. A secondary outcome in both trials was disease remission (a CDAI score of less than 150). In the first trial, the natalizumab and placebo groups had similar rates of response (56 percent and 49 percent, respectively; P=0.05) and remission (37 percent and 30 percent, respectively; P=0.12) at 10 weeks. Continuing natalizumab in the second trial resulted in higher rates of sustained response (61 percent vs. 28 percent, P<0.001) and remission (44 percent vs. 26 percent, P=0.003) through week 36 than did switching to placebo. Serious adverse events occurred in 7 percent of each group in the first trial and in 10 percent of the placebo group and 8 percent of the natalizumab group in the second trial. In an open-label extension study, a patient treated with natalizumab died from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, associated with the JC virus, a human polyomavirus. Induction therapy with natalizumab for Crohn's disease resulted in small, nonsignificant improvements in response and remission rates. Patients who had a response had significantly increased rates of sustained response and remission if natalizumab was continued every four weeks. The benefit of natalizumab will need to be weighed against the risk of serious adverse events, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00032786 and NCT00032799.) Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                17 December 2014
                : 9
                : 147-154
                Affiliations
                Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Charité Medical School, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Daniel C Baumgart, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Charité Medical Center – Virchow Hospital, Medical School of the Humboldt-University, D-13344 Berlin, Germany, Tel +49 30 450 553315, Fax +49 30 450 553983, Email daniel.baumgart@ 123456charite.de
                Article
                dddt-9-147
                10.2147/DDDT.S50348
                4277125
                25552903
                © 2015 Krupka and Baumgart. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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