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      The Effect of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on a Child with Tourette Syndrome

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          Abstract

          Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood. New therapies are needed to effectively manage and treat this condition. Gut microbiota can affect central physiology and function via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Here, we report a case in which fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is used to treat a child with Tourette syndrome, whose symptoms ameliorated dramatically in the following eight weeks.

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          Most cited references4

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          Fecal microbiota transplantation cured epilepsy in a case with Crohn’s disease: The first report

          Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising strategy that involves reconstruction of gut microbiota. Recently, it has been considered as a treatment of Crohn’s disease (CD) and certain neurological diseases. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report the first case that used FMT to achieve remission of intestinal and neurological symptoms in a girl with CD and a 17-year history of epilepsy. During the 20 mo of follow-up, FMT has proved its efficacy in preventing relapse of seizures after withdrawing the antiepileptic drugs. Furthermore, this finding highlights the role of microbiota-gut-brain axis and inspires a novel treatment for epilepsy through remodeling gut microbiota.
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            The functional anatomy of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

            Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) holds a prime position as a disorder transgressing the brittle boundaries of neurology and psychiatry with an entangling web of motor and behavioral problems. With tics as the disorder's hallmark and myriads of related signs such as echo-, pali- and coprophenomena, paralleled by a broad neuropsychiatric spectrum of comorbidities encompassing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and self-injurious behavior and depression, GTS pathophysiology remains enigmatic. In this review, in the light of GTS phenomenology, we will focus on current theories of tic-emergence related to aberrant activity in the basal ganglia and abnormal basal ganglia-cortex interplay through cortico-striato-thalamocortical loops from an anatomical, neurophysiological and functional-neuroimaging perspective. We will attempt a holistic view to the countless major and minor drawbacks of the GTS brain and comment on future directions of neuroscientific research to elucidate this common and complex neuropsychiatric syndrome, which merits scientific understanding and social acceptance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Tic disorders: from pathophysiology to treatment.

              Tic disorders are stereotypic behaviours,more frequent than once believed, and therefore likely to be encountered by primary care physicians. Tics usually begin in childhood and are the clinical hallmark of Tourette Syndrome (TS), the most common cause of tics. TS is a relatively common neurobehavioural disorder with a spectrum of manifestations that wax and wane during its natural course. The pathophysiology of tics, at molecular and cellular level, is still unknown,whereas structural and functional neuroimaging studies have shown the involvement of the basal ganglia and related cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits, and the dopaminergic neuronal system. Moreover, TS has a strong genetic background. The management of TS is often complicated by the presence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other behaviour disorders. The correct diagnosis is a fundamental step for a proper management of these disorders, and a multimodal treatment is usually indicated. This approach includes educational and supportive interventions, as well as pharmacological treatments when tics are at their worst.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Case Rep Med
                Case Rep Med
                CRIM
                Case Reports in Medicine
                Hindawi
                1687-9627
                1687-9635
                2017
                12 December 2017
                : 2017
                : 6165239
                Affiliations
                1Institute of Digestive Diseases, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China
                2Medical College of Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
                3Department of Pediatrics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Georgios D. Kotzalidis

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0361-7674
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0775-5142
                Article
                10.1155/2017/6165239
                5865276
                29666652
                40b03608-c7a5-4c38-a235-b561a2647bdc
                Copyright © 2017 Huijun Zhao et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 13 July 2017
                : 18 October 2017
                Funding
                Funded by: National High-Tech Research and Development
                Award ID: 2015AA020701
                Categories
                Case Report

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