This study aimed to develop a ternary nanocomposite system of organoclay, glycol-chitosan, and Eudragit ®S100 as an effective colon targeted drug delivery carrier to enhance the oral absorption of insulin. A nanocomplex of insulin and aminoclay was prepared via spontaneous co-assembly, which was then coated with glycol-chitosan and Eudragit S ®100 (EGAC-Ins). The double coated nanocomplex, EGAC-Ins demonstrated a high entrapment efficiency of greater than 90% and a pH-dependent drug release. The conformational stability of insulin entrapped in EGAC-Ins was effectively maintained in the presence of proteolytic enzymes. When compared to a free insulin solution, EGAC-Ins enhanced drug permeability by approximately sevenfold in Caco-2 cells and enhanced colonic drug absorption in rats. Accordingly, oral EGAC-Ins significantly reduced blood glucose levels in diabetic rats while the hypoglycemic effect of an oral insulin solution was negligible. In conclusion, EGAC-Ins should be a promising colonic delivery system for improving the oral absorption of insulin.