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      Enhanced oral delivery of insulin via the colon-targeted nanocomposite system of organoclay/glycol chitosan/Eudragit ®S100

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          Abstract

          This study aimed to develop a ternary nanocomposite system of organoclay, glycol-chitosan, and Eudragit ®S100 as an effective colon targeted drug delivery carrier to enhance the oral absorption of insulin. A nanocomplex of insulin and aminoclay was prepared via spontaneous co-assembly, which was then coated with glycol-chitosan and Eudragit S ®100 (EGAC-Ins). The double coated nanocomplex, EGAC-Ins demonstrated a high entrapment efficiency of greater than 90% and a pH-dependent drug release. The conformational stability of insulin entrapped in EGAC-Ins was effectively maintained in the presence of proteolytic enzymes. When compared to a free insulin solution, EGAC-Ins enhanced drug permeability by approximately sevenfold in Caco-2 cells and enhanced colonic drug absorption in rats. Accordingly, oral EGAC-Ins significantly reduced blood glucose levels in diabetic rats while the hypoglycemic effect of an oral insulin solution was negligible. In conclusion, EGAC-Ins should be a promising colonic delivery system for improving the oral absorption of insulin.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Oral drug delivery with polymeric nanoparticles: the gastrointestinal mucus barriers.

          Oral delivery is the most common method for drug administration. However, poor solubility, stability, and bioavailability of many drugs make achieving therapeutic levels via the gastrointestinal (GI) tract challenging. Drug delivery must overcome numerous hurdles, including the acidic gastric environment and the continuous secretion of mucus that protects the GI tract. Nanoparticle drug carriers that can shield drugs from degradation and deliver them to intended sites within the GI tract may enable more efficient and sustained drug delivery. However, the rapid secretion and shedding of GI tract mucus can significantly limit the effectiveness of nanoparticle drug delivery systems. Many types of nanoparticles are efficiently trapped in and rapidly removed by mucus, making controlled release in the GI tract difficult. This review addresses the protective barrier properties of mucus secretions, how mucus affects the fate of orally administered nanoparticles, and recent developments in nanoparticles engineered to penetrate the mucus barrier. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Comparison of the gastrointestinal anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of humans and commonly used laboratory animals.

             T T Kararli (1995)
            In addition to metabolic differences, the anatomical, physiological, and biochemical differences in the gastrointestinal (G.I.) tract of the human and common laboratory animals can cause significant variation in drug absorption from the oral route. Among the physiological factors, pH, bile, pancreatic juice, and mucus and fluid volume and content can modify dissolution rates, solubility, transit times, and membrane transport of drug molecules. The microbial content of the G.I. tract can significantly affect the reductive metabolism and enterohepatic circulation of drugs and colonic delivery of formulations. The transit time of dosage forms can be significantly different between species due to different dimensions and propulsive activities of the G.I. tract. The lipid/protein composition of the enterocyte membrane along the G.I. tract can alter binding and passive, active, and carrier-mediated transport of drugs. The location and number of Peyer's patches can also be important in the absorption of large molecules and particulate matter. While small animals, rats, mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits, are most suitable for determining the mechanism of drug absorption and bioavailability values from powder or solution formulations, larger animals, dogs, pigs, and monkeys, are used to assess absorption from formulations. The understanding of physiological, anatomical, and biochemical differences between the G.I. tracts of different animal species can lead to the selection of the correct animal model to mimic the bioavailability of compounds in the human. This article reviews the anatomical, physiological, and biochemical differences between the G.I. tracts of humans and commonly used laboratory animals.
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              Recent advances in (therapeutic protein) drug development

              Therapeutic protein drugs are an important class of medicines serving patients most in need of novel therapies. Recently approved recombinant protein therapeutics have been developed to treat a wide variety of clinical indications, including cancers, autoimmunity/inflammation, exposure to infectious agents, and genetic disorders. The latest advances in protein-engineering technologies have allowed drug developers and manufacturers to fine-tune and exploit desirable functional characteristics of proteins of interest while maintaining (and in some cases enhancing) product safety or efficacy or both. In this review, we highlight the emerging trends and approaches in protein drug development by using examples of therapeutic proteins approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration over the previous five years (2011–2016, namely January 1, 2011, through August 31, 2016).
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                hkhan@dongguk.edu
                Journal
                J Nanobiotechnology
                J Nanobiotechnology
                Journal of Nanobiotechnology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1477-3155
                25 July 2020
                25 July 2020
                2020
                : 18
                Affiliations
                GRID grid.255168.d, ISNI 0000 0001 0671 5021, College of Pharmacy, , Dongguk University-Seoul, ; Dongguk-ro-32, Ilsan-Donggu, Goyang, Korea
                Article
                662
                10.1186/s12951-020-00662-x
                7382030
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

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                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Biotechnology

                insulin, oral delivery system, colon targeting, nano-carrier, aminoclay

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