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      High-Efficiency Postdilution Online Hemodiafiltration Reduces All-Cause Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          Retrospective studies suggest that online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) may reduce the risk of mortality compared with standard hemodialysis in patients with ESRD. We conducted a multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial in which we assigned 906 chronic hemodialysis patients either to continue hemodialysis (n=450) or to switch to high-efficiency postdilution OL-HDF (n=456). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, and secondary outcomes included cardiovascular mortality, all-cause hospitalization, treatment tolerability, and laboratory data. Compared with patients who continued on hemodialysis, those assigned to OL-HDF had a 30% lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.53-0.92; P=0.01), a 33% lower risk of cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.44-1.02; P=0.06), and a 55% lower risk of infection-related mortality (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.21-0.96; P=0.03). The estimated number needed to treat suggested that switching eight patients from hemodialysis to OL-HDF may prevent one annual death. The incidence rates of dialysis sessions complicated by hypotension and of all-cause hospitalization were lower in patients assigned to OL-HDF. In conclusion, high-efficiency postdilution OL-HDF reduces all-cause mortality compared with conventional hemodialysis.

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          Most cited references 28

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          A comparison of on-line hemodiafiltration and high-flux hemodialysis: a prospective clinical study.

          Some of the morbidity associated with chronic hemodialysis is thought to result from retention of large molecular weight solutes that are poorly removed by diffusion in conventional hemodialysis. Hemodiafiltration combines convective and diffusive solute removal in a single therapy. The hypothesis that hemodiafiltration provides better solute removal than high-flux hemodialysis was tested in a prospective, randomized clinical trial. Patients were randomized to either on-line postdilution hemodiafiltration or high-flux hemodialysis. The groups did not differ in body size, treatment time, blood flow rate, or net fluid removal. The filtration volume in hemodiafiltration was 21 +/-1 L. Therapy prescriptions were unchanged for a 12-mo study period. Removal of both small (urea and creatinine) and large (ss(2)-microglobulin and complement factor D) solutes was significantly greater for hemodiafiltration than for high-flux hemodialysis. The increased urea and creatinine removal did not result in lower pretreatment serum concentrations in the hemodiafiltration group. Pretreatment plasma beta(2)-microglobulin concentrations decreased with time (P< 0.001); however, the decrease was similar for both therapies (P = 0.317). Pretreatment plasma complement factor D concentrations also decreased with time (P<0.001), and the decrease was significantly greater with hemodiafiltration than with high-flux hemodialysis (P = 0.010). The conclusion is that on-line hemodiafiltration provides superior solute removal to high-flux hemodialysis over a wide molecular weight range. The improved removal may not result in lower pretreatment plasma concentrations, however, possibly because of limitations in mass transfer rates within the body.
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            On-line hemodiafiltration reduces the proinflammatory CD14+CD16+ monocyte-derived dendritic cells: A prospective, crossover study.

            It is not known whether high convective transport may have a role in modulating the chronic inflammation of hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of on-line hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) on proinflammatory peripheral monocytes: Percentage of CD14+CD16+ cells and their telomere length and spontaneous or bacterial DNA-induced production of cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6). In a prospective, crossover study, 31 patients who were on high-flux HD (HF-HD) were evaluated. Patients underwent the following sequence of treatments (4 mo each): HF-HD (basal), OL-HDF (period 1), HF-HD (period 2), OL-HDF (period 3), and HF-HD (period 4). The dialysis characteristics were similar in the two modalities; the only difference was a higher convective transport in the OL-HDF than in the HF-HD. All patients who were on OL-HDF periods showed a significantly lower number of CD14+CD16+ cells than on HF-HD (18.5 +/- 2.3 basal versus 13.6 +/- 2.9 period 1 and 13.9 +/- 2.3 period 3; P = 0.001). By contrast, HF-HD restored the number of CD14+CD16+ cells to the basal values (19.2 +/- 2.8 and 18.6 +/- 1.4, periods 2 and 4, respectively; NS). During OL-HDF periods, the reduction of CD14+CD16+ was paralleled by a decreased number of short telomere cells. Spontaneous or bacterial DNA-induced production of cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) was increased in HF-HD as compared with OL-HDF. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that as compared with HF-HD, OL-HDF markedly reduces the number of proinflammatory CD14+CD16+ cells and the production of TNF-alpha and IL-6. Future studies are needed to assess the possible therapeutic effect of convective transport on chronic inflammation that is associated with HD.
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              Change from conventional haemodiafiltration to on-line haemodiafiltration.

              On-line haemodiafiltration (HDF) is a technique which combines diffusion with elevated convection and uses pyrogen-free dialysate as a replacement fluid. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference between conventional HDF (1-3 l/h) and on-line HDF (6-12 l/h). The study included 37 patients, 25 males and 12 females. The mean age was 56.5 +/- 13 years and duration of dialysis was 62.7 +/- 49 months. Three patients dropped out for transplantation, three patients died and three failed to complete the study period. Initially all patients were on conventional HDF with high-flux membranes over the preceding 34 +/- 32 months. Treatment was performed with blood flow (QB) 402 +/- 41 ml/min, dialysis time (Td) 187 min, dialysate flow (QD) 654 +/- 126 ml/min and replacement fluid (Qi) 4.0 +/- 2 l/session. Patients were changed to on-line HDF with the same filtre and dialysis time, QD 679 +/- 38 ml/min (NS), QB 434 +/- 68 ml/min (P < 0.05) and post-dilutional replacement fluid 22.5 +/- 4.3 l/session (P < 0.001). We compared conventional HDF with on-line HDF over a period of 1 year. Dialysis adequacy was monitored according to standard clinical and biochemical criteria. Kinetic analysis of urea and beta2-micro-globulin (beta2m) was performed monthly. Tolerance was excellent and no pyrogenic reactions were observed. Pre-dialysis sodium increased 2 mEq/l during on-line HDF. Plasma potassium, pre- and post-dialysis bicarbonate, uric acid, phosphate, calcium, iPTH, albumin, total proteins, cholesterol and triglycerides remained stable. The mean plasma beta2m reduction ratio increased from 56.1 +/- 8.7% in conventional HDF to 71.1 +/- 9.1% in on-line HDF (P < 0.001). The pre-dialysis plasma beta2m decreased from 27.4 +/- 8.1 to 24.2 +/- 6.5 mg/l (P < 0.01). Mean Kt/V (Daugirdas 2nd generation) was 1.35 +/- 0.21 in conventional HDF compared with 1.56 +/- 0.29 in on-line HDF (P < 0.01), Kt/Vr (Kt/V taking into consideration post-dialysis urea rebound) 1.12 +/- 0.17 vs 1.26 +/- 0.20 (P < 0.01), BUN time average concentration (TAC) 44.4 +/- 9 vs 40.6 +/- 10 mg/dl (P < 0.05) and protein catabolic rate (PCR) 1.13 +/- 0.22 vs 1.13 +/- 0.24 g/kg (NS). There was a significant increase in haemoglobin (10.66 +/- 1.1 vs 11.4 +/- 1.5) and haematocrit (32.2 +/- 2.9 vs 34.0 +/- 4.4%), P < 0.05, during the on-line HDF period, which allowed a decrease in the erythropoietin doses (3861 +/- 2446 vs 3232 +/- 2492 UI/week), (P < 0.05). Better blood pressure control (MAP 103.8 +/- 15 vs 97.8 +/- 11 mmHg, P < 0.01) and a lower percentage of patients requiring antihypertensive drugs were also observed. The change from conventional HDF to on-line HDF results in increased convective removal and fluid replacement (18 l/session). During on-line HDF treatment, dialysis dose was increased for both small and large molecules with a decrease in uraemic toxicity level (TAC). On-line HDF provided a better correction of anaemia with lower dosages of erythropoietin. Finally, blood pressure was easily controlled.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
                JASN
                American Society of Nephrology (ASN)
                1046-6673
                1533-3450
                February 28 2013
                March 2013
                March 2013
                February 14 2013
                : 24
                : 3
                : 487-497
                Article
                10.1681/ASN.2012080875
                3582206
                23411788
                © 2013

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