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      A warmer world means more beetles and more dermatitis

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          Abstract

          Dear Sir, Global warming is a hypothesis that the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere is increasing because of the release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide that is the most important anthropogenic gas. Global warming controversy includes the causes and the consequences of a possible global warming. Although there is no scientific evidence to claim a man-made global warming, a global climate change may be a serious threat for the future of the world. Recent reports revealed that climate changes due to a possible global warming influence ecological dynamics of the insect species and cause faster population growth rates. Increased mean summer temperatures, and prolonged warm and humid periods, promote malaria transmissions and periods of possible successful transmission of tick-borne infections.[1 2] Paederus dermatitis, also known as blister beetle dermatitis, is a peculiar type of acute irritant contact dermatitis caused by an insect belonging to the genus Paederus. The genus Paederus has nearly 630 species worldwide.[3] The disease is characterized by the appearance of vesicles, bullae, and pustules on erythematous base, and it is often misdiagnosed with herpes zoster or herpes simplex infection because of the burning and stinging sensation [Figure 1]. Interestingly, the beetle does not bite or sting, and the contact between skin and the release of coelomic fluid of the accidently crushed beetle causes the dermatitis. Paederus beetles live in regions with a warm, tropical climate.[4] Paederus dermatitis has been reported recently with outbreaks from various countries including Iran,[5] Iraq,[6] Turkey, Malaysia,[7] Kenya, Nigeria, Australia,[8] Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, and Ecuador in the literature. Figure 1 Paederus dermatitis involving the neck An increase in global temperature may cause a progressive increment in the incidence of paederus dermatitis. In conclusion, we may face more beetles and dermatitis in the near future if we do not take appropriate measures to prevent a possible global warming.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Effects of Global Warming on Ancient Mammalian Communities and Their Environments

          Background Current global warming affects the composition and dynamics of mammalian communities and can increase extinction risk; however, long-term effects of warming on mammals are less understood. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of fossil herbivorous mammalian tooth enamel document environmental and climatic changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3/C4 transitions and relative seasonality. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes preserved in fossil teeth to document the magnitude of mammalian dietary shifts and ancient floral change during geologically documented glacial and interglacial periods during the Pliocene (∼1.9 million years ago) and Pleistocene (∼1.3 million years ago) in Florida. Stable isotope data demonstrate increased aridity, increased C4 grass consumption, inter-faunal dietary partitioning, increased isotopic niche breadth of mixed feeders, niche partitioning of phylogenetically similar taxa, and differences in relative seasonality with warming. Conclusion/Significance Our data show that global warming resulted in dramatic vegetation and dietary changes even at lower latitudes (∼28°N). Our results also question the use of models that predict the long term decline and extinction of species based on the assumption that niches are conserved over time. These findings have immediate relevance to clarifying possible biotic responses to current global warming in modern ecosystems.
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            Paederus dermatitis.

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              Paederus dermatitis in northern Iran: a report of 156 cases.

              Paederus dermatitis develops when beetles of the genus Paederus (often called rove beetles) are crushed on the skin, releasing the vesicant pederin. These beetles are found in many tropical and subtropical habitats. We describe 156 patients who presented to a dermatology clinic in the Guilan province of northern Iran during a 6-month period (May-October 2001). The peak time of presentation was in September, and the face and neck were the most common sites of involvement. Clinically, the most common presentation comprised geographic erythematous plaques with micropustules. In three-quarters of patients, more than one lesion was present. Kissing lesions were seen in 5% of cases, and 15% of patients developed diffuse desquamation. The majority of patients resided within 1 km of rice fields and used fluorescent lighting at home. In half of the cases, another family member was also affected. Paederus dermatitis is a common skin condition in northern Iran. We believe that increased public awareness of this condition can decrease mucocutaneous exposure to pederin.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Indian J Occup Environ Med
                IJOEM
                Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
                Medknow Publications (India )
                0973-2284
                1998-3670
                Jan-Apr 2011
                : 15
                : 1
                : 47
                IJOEM-15-47
                10.4103/0019-5278.82993
                3143519
                21808503
                Copyright: © Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Letter to Editor

                Occupational & Environmental medicine

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