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      The global and regional prevalence of oestrosis in sheep and goats: a systematic review of articles and meta-analysis

      Parasites & Vectors

      BioMed Central

      Epidemiology, Prevalence, Sheep bot fly, Nasal myiasis, Meta-analysis

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          Abstract

          Background

          Oestrosis, caused by the larvae of Oestrus ovis, commonly known as sheep nose bot, is an obligatory cavitary myiasis of sheep and goats. Oestrus ovis is a widespread parasite, but little is known about the prevalence of oestrosis at the global and broad geographical levels. The present study aimed to explore the epidemiology of oestrosis at the global and regional level to estimate prevalences and their associated factors using a systematic approach. This is, to the author’s knowledge, the first meta-analysis of oestrosis in sheep and goats.

          Methods

          Published articles were obtained from nine electronic databases (PubMed, CAB Abstracts, Web of Science, Scopus, UCB library, Medline, Biosis Citation Index, Indian journals and Google Scholar) reporting the prevalence of O. ovis in sheep and goats from 1970 to 2018. Pooled prevalences were estimated using a random effect meta-analysis model.

          Results

          Sixty-six studies were eligible, and data from 40,870 sheep and 18,216 goats were used for quantitative analysis. The random effect estimated prevalence of oestrosis at the global level in sheep was 51.15% (95% CI: 42.80–59.51%) and in goats was 42.19% (95% CI: 33.43–50.95%). The pooled prevalence estimates for Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas were 47.85% (95% CI: 36.04–59.66%), 44.48% (95% CI: 33.09–55.87%), 56.83% (95% CI: 48.92–64.74%) and 34.46% (95% CI: 19.90–49.01%), respectively. Heterogeneity ( I 2 > 80%) was detected in most pooled estimates.

          Conclusions

          Oestrosis is highly prevalent in many geographical regions of the world, especially in Europe and Africa. Factors that contribute to the pooled prevalence estimate of oestrosis need to be emphasised in any survey to estimate the true prevalence of oestrosis. Furthermore, there is a need for immunisation or implementation of other preventive measures to reduce the burden of oestrosis in sheep and goats and to improve the health and welfare status.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (10.1186/s13071-019-3597-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 87

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          Regional Variation in the Prevalence of E. coli O157 in Cattle: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression

          Background Escherichia coli O157 (EcO157) infection has been recognized as an important global public health concern. But information on the prevalence of EcO157 in cattle at the global and at the wider geographical levels is limited, if not absent. This is the first meta-analysis to investigate the point prevalence of EcO157 in cattle at the global level and to explore the factors contributing to variation in prevalence estimates. Methods Seven electronic databases- CAB Abstracts, PubMed, Biosis Citation Index, Medline, Web of Knowledge, Scirus and Scopus were searched for relevant publications from 1980 to 2012. A random effect meta-analysis model was used to produce the pooled estimates. The potential sources of between study heterogeneity were identified using meta-regression. Principal findings A total of 140 studies consisting 220,427 cattle were included in the meta-analysis. The prevalence estimate of EcO157 in cattle at the global level was 5.68% (95% CI, 5.16–6.20). The random effects pooled prevalence estimates in Africa, Northern America, Oceania, Europe, Asia and Latin America-Caribbean were 31.20% (95% CI, 12.35–50.04), 7.35% (95% CI, 6.44–8.26), 6.85% (95% CI, 2.41–11.29), 5.15% (95% CI, 4.21–6.09), 4.69% (95% CI, 3.05–6.33) and 1.65% (95% CI, 0.77–2.53), respectively. Between studies heterogeneity was evidenced in most regions. World region (p<0.001), type of cattle (p<0.001) and to some extent, specimens (p = 0.074) as well as method of pre-enrichment (p = 0.110), were identified as factors for variation in the prevalence estimates of EcO157 in cattle. Conclusion The prevalence of the organism seems to be higher in the African and Northern American regions. The important factors that might have influence in the estimates of EcO157 are type of cattle and kind of screening specimen. Their roles need to be determined and they should be properly handled in any survey to estimate the true prevalence of EcO157.
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            Pathophysiology of Oestrus ovis infection in sheep and goats: a review.

            Oestrus ovis is a very common parasite of sheep and goats in many countries. Its pathological effects are often underestimated because owners and veterinarians are used to seeing the infection. The study of natural and experimental infections has provided information about the evolution of the disease and its pathophysiology. Hypersensitivity is involved; the numbers of mast cells and eosinophils increase but changes in IgE have only recently been examined. Little is known about the development of immunity but it is possible that some animals are immunodeficient.
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              An outbreak of human external ophthalmomyiasis due to Oestrus ovis in southern Afghanistan.

              Oestrus ovis is the most common cause of human ophthalmomyiasis, and infection is often misdiagnosed as acute conjunctivitis. Although it typically occurs in shepherds and farmers, O. ovis ophthalmomyiasis has also been reported in urban areas. We report the first case study of O. ovis infection from Afghanistan.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                zaman.cvasu@gmail.com
                Journal
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central (London )
                1756-3305
                12 July 2019
                12 July 2019
                2019
                : 12
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine & Surgery, Chattogram Veterinary & Animal Sciences University (CVASU), Chattogram, 4225 Bangladesh
                Article
                3597
                10.1186/s13071-019-3597-2
                6625052
                31300017
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Parasitology

                epidemiology, prevalence, sheep bot fly, nasal myiasis, meta-analysis

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