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      Defining periodontal health

      abstract
      1 , , 1
      BMC Oral Health
      BioMed Central
      Prevention in practice - making it happen
      2962014

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          Abstract

          Assessment of the periodontium has relied exclusively on a variety of physical measurements (e.g., attachment level, probing depth, bone loss, mobility, recession, degree of inflammation, etc.) in relation to various case definitions of periodontal disease. Periodontal health was often an afterthought and was simply defined as the absence of the signs and symptoms of a periodontal disease. Accordingly, these strict and sometimes disparate definitions of periodontal disease have resulted in an idealistic requirement of a pristine periodontium for periodontal health, which makes us all diseased in one way or another. Furthermore, the consequence of not having a realistic definition of health has resulted in potentially questionable recommendations. The aim of this manuscript was to assess the biological, environmental, sociological, economic, educational and psychological relationships that are germane to constructing a paradigm that defines periodontal health using a modified wellness model. The paradigm includes four cardinal characteristics, i.e., 1) a functional dentition, 2) the painless function of a dentition, 3) the stability of the periodontal attachment apparatus, and 4) the psychological and social well-being of the individual. Finally, strategies and policies that advocate periodontal health were appraised.

          I'm not sick but I'm not well,

          and it's a sin to live so well.

          Flagpole Sitta, Harvey Danger

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          Most cited references115

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          Inflammatory and immune pathways in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

          The pathogenesis of periodontitis involves a complex immune/inflammatory cascade that is initiated by the bacteria of the oral biofilm that forms naturally on the teeth. The susceptibility to periodontitis appears to be determined by the host response; specifically, the magnitude of the inflammatory response and the differential activation of immune pathways. The purpose of this review was to delineate our current knowledge of the host response in periodontitis. The role of innate immunity, the failure of acute inflammation to resolve (thus becoming chronic), the cytokine pathways that regulate the activation of acquired immunity and the cells and products of the immune system are considered. New information relating to regulation of both inflammation and the immune response will be reviewed in the context of susceptibility to, and perhaps control of, periodontitis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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            Immunomicrobial pathogenesis of periodontitis: keystones, pathobionts, and host response.

            Recent studies have uncovered novel mechanisms underlying the breakdown of periodontal host-microbe homeostasis, which can precipitate dysbiosis and periodontitis in susceptible hosts. Dysbiotic microbial communities of keystone pathogens and pathobionts are thought to exhibit synergistic virulence whereby not only can they endure the host response but can also thrive by exploiting tissue-destructive inflammation, which fuels a self-feeding cycle of escalating dysbiosis and inflammatory bone loss, potentially leading to tooth loss and systemic complications. Here, I discuss new paradigms in our understanding of periodontitis, which may shed light into other polymicrobial inflammatory disorders. In addition, I highlight gaps in knowledge required for an integrated picture of the interplay between microbes and innate and adaptive immune elements that initiate and propagate chronic periodontal inflammation.
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              Case definitions for use in population-based surveillance of periodontitis.

              Many definitions of periodontitis have been used in the literature for population-based studies, but there is no accepted standard. In early epidemiologic studies, the two major periodontal diseases, gingivitis and periodontitis, were combined and considered to be a continuum. National United States surveys were conducted in 1960 to 1962, 1971 to 1974, 1981, 1985 to 1986, 1988 to 1994, and 1999 to 2000. The case definitions and protocols used in the six national surveys reflect a continuing evolution and improvement over time. Generally, the clinical diagnosis of periodontitis is based on measures of probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), the radiographic pattern and extent of alveolar bone loss, gingival inflammation measured as bleeding on probing, or a combination of these measures. Several other patient characteristics are considered, and several factors, such as age, can affect measurements of PD and CAL. Accuracy and reproducibility of measurements of PD and CAL are important because case definitions for periodontitis are based largely on either or both measurements, and relatively small changes in these values can result in large changes in disease prevalence. The classification currently accepted by the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) was devised by the 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions. However, in 2003 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the AAP appointed a working group to develop further standardized clinical case definitions for population-based studies of periodontitis. This classification defines severe periodontitis and moderate periodontitis in terms of PD and CAL to enhance case definitions and further demonstrates the importance of thresholds of PD and CAL and the number of affected sites when determining prevalence.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Conference
                BMC Oral Health
                BMC Oral Health
                BMC Oral Health
                BioMed Central
                1472-6831
                2015
                15 September 2015
                : 15
                : Suppl 1
                : S6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 43210, USA
                Article
                1472-6831-15-S1-S6
                10.1186/1472-6831-15-S1-S6
                4580771
                26390888
                40deb60a-3756-468b-92e3-86557ceb5980
                Copyright © 2015 Mariotti and Hefti

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Prevention in practice - making it happen
                Cape Town, South Africa
                2962014
                History
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                Dentistry
                Dentistry

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