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      Comparison of circular- and linear-stapled gastrojejunostomy in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a multicenter study

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is a common, well-established procedure, but no consensus regarding selection of the gastrojejunostomy (GJ) technique has been reached, and standardization of this precise technique is far from being achieved.

          Aim

          To compare circular-stapled and linear-stapled GJ in LRYGB in terms of operative time and postoperative complications.

          Material and methods

          This retrospective case-control study compared the perioperative and postoperative outcomes of LRYGB with a circular-stapled (LRYGB-CS) versus linear-stapled (LRYGB-LS) gastrojejunostomy. All patients, operated on in two academic referral care centers for bariatric surgery, were enrolled from April 2013 to June 2016. 457 patients were included (255 and 202 respectively in the LRYGB-CS and LRYGB-LS groups). After matching the groups for age, sex, body mass index, arterial hypertension, and presence of type 2 diabetes in a 1 : 1 ratio, 99 patients were enrolled in each.

          Results

          The total operative time was longer in the LRYGB-LS group (140 vs. 85 min, p < 0.001). The postoperative hemorrhage and wound infection rates were lower in the LRYGB-LS group (2.1% vs. 10.3%, p = 0.021, and 1.0% vs. 9.3%, p = 0.011). The readmission rates were comparable (8.2% vs. 6.1%, p = 0.593). There was no significant difference in the incidence of gastrojejunostomy leakage, stricture, port-site hernia, or marginal ulcer.

          Conclusions

          Both anastomosis types for LRYGB are safe and have low and comparable risks of postoperative complications. After LRYGB-CS, postoperative bleeding and wound infections are slightly more frequent; however, the operative time is shorter.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Metabolic/bariatric surgery worldwide 2011.

          Metabolic/bariatric procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity, as well as for type 2 diabetes, are among the most commonly performed gastrointestinal operations today, justifying periodic assessment of the numerical status of metabolic/bariatric surgery and its relative distribution of procedures. An email questionnaire was sent to the leadership of the 50 nations or national groupings in the International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders (IFSO). Outcome measurements were numbers of metabolic/bariatric operations and surgeons, types of procedures performed, and trends from 2003 to 2008 to 2011 worldwide and in the regional groupings of Europe, USA/Canada, Latin/South America, and Asia/Pacific. Response rate was 84%. The global total number of procedures in 2011 was 340,768; the global total number of metabolic/bariatric surgeons was 6,705. The most commonly performed procedures were Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) 46.6%; sleeve gastrectomy (SG) 27.8%; adjustable gastric banding (AGB) 17.8%; and biliopancreatic diversion/duodenal switch (BPD/DS) 2.2%. The global trends from 2003 to 2008 to 2011 showed a decrease in RYGB: 65.1 to 49.0 to 46.6%; an increase, followed by a steep decline, in AGB: 24.4 to 42.3 to 17.8%; and a marked increase in SG: 0.0 to 5.3 to 27.89%. BPD/DS declined: 6.1 to 4.9 to 2.1%. The trends from the four IFSO regions differed, except for the universal increase in SG. Periodic metabolic/bariatric surgery surveys add to the knowledge and understanding of all physicians caring for morbidly obese patients. The salient message of the 2011 assessment is that SG (0.0% in 2008) has markedly increased in prevalence.
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            The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bariatric (weight loss) surgery for obesity: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

            To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery for obesity. Seventeen electronic databases were searched [MEDLINE; EMBASE; PreMedline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations; The Cochrane Library including the Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, DARE, NHS EED and HTA databases; Web of Knowledge Science Citation Index (SCI); Web of Knowledge ISI Proceedings; PsycInfo; CRD databases; BIOSIS; and databases listing ongoing clinical trials] from inception to August 2008. Bibliographies of related papers were assessed and experts were contacted to identify additional published and unpublished references. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility. Inclusion criteria were applied to the full text using a standard form. Interventions investigated were open and laparoscopic bariatric surgical procedures in widespread current use compared with one another and with non-surgical interventions. Population comprised adult patients with body mass index (BMI) > or = 30 and young obese people. Main outcomes were at least one of the following after at least 12 months follow-up: measures of weight change; quality of life (QoL); perioperative and postoperative mortality and morbidity; change in obesity-related comorbidities; cost-effectiveness. Studies eligible for inclusion in the systematic review for comparisons of Surgery versus Surgery were RCTs. For comparisons of Surgery versus Non-surgical procedures eligible studies were RCTs, controlled clinical trials and prospective cohort studies (with a control cohort). Studies eligible for inclusion in the systematic review of cost-effectiveness were full cost-effectiveness analyses, cost-utility analyses, cost-benefit analyses and cost-consequence analyses. One reviewer performed data extraction, which was checked by two reviewers independently. Two reviewers independently applied quality assessment criteria and differences in opinion were resolved at each stage. Studies were synthesised through a narrative review with full tabulation of the results of all included studies. In the economic model the analysis was developed for three patient populations, those with BMI > or = 40; BMI > or = 30 and or = 30 and or = 30 and 40, ICERs were 18,930 pounds at two years and 1397 pounds at 20 years, and for BMI > or = 30 and < 35, ICERs were 60,754 pounds at two years and 12,763 pounds at 20 years. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses produced ICERs which were generally within the range considered cost-effective, particularly at the long twenty year time horizons, although for the BMI 30-35 group some ICERs were above the acceptable range. Bariatric surgery appears to be a clinically effective and cost-effective intervention for moderately to severely obese people compared with non-surgical interventions. Uncertainties remain and further research is required to provide detailed data on patient QoL; impact of surgeon experience on outcome; late complications leading to reoperation; duration of comorbidity remission; resource use. Good-quality RCTs will provide evidence on bariatric surgery for young people and for adults with class I or class II obesity. New research must report on the resolution and/or development of comorbidities such as Type 2 diabetes and hypertension so that the potential benefits of early intervention can be assessed.
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              Long-term outcomes after bariatric surgery: fifteen-year follow-up of adjustable gastric banding and a systematic review of the bariatric surgical literature.

              To describe the long-term outcomes after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) and compare these with the published literature on bariatric surgery. Because obesity is a chronic disease, any proposed obesity treatment should be expected to demonstrate long-term durability to be considered effective. Yet for bariatric surgery, few long-term weight loss data are available. We report our 15-year follow-up data after LAGB and provide a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature for weight loss at 10 years or more after bariatric surgical procedures. We performed a prospective longitudinal cohort study of LAGB patients using an electronic database system (LapBase) to track progress, measure weight changes, and document revisional procedures. The evolution of the LAGB procedure was recognized, and revisional rates for 3 separate periods between September 1994 and December 2011 were described. In addition, we performed a systematic review of the peer-reviewed published literature collecting all reports that included weight loss data at or beyond 10 years. A total of 3227 patients, with a mean age of 47 years and a mean body mass index of 43.8 kg/m, were treated by laparoscopic adjustable gastric band placement between September 1994 and December 2011. Seven hundred fourteen patients had completed at least 10 years of follow-up. Follow-up was intact in 81% of patients overall and 78% of those beyond 10 years. There was no perioperative mortality for the primary placement or for any revisional procedures. There was 47.1% of excess weight loss (% EWL) at 15 years [n = 54; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 8.3] and 62% EWL at 16 years (n = 14; 95% CI = 13.6). There was a mean of 47.0% EWL (n = 714; 95% CI = 1.3) for all patients who were at or beyond 10 years follow-up. Revisional procedures were performed for proximal enlargement (26%), erosion (3.4%), and port and tubing problems (21%). The band was explanted in 5.6%. The need for revision decreased as the technique evolved, with 40% revision rate for proximal gastric enlargements in the first 10 years, reducing to 6.4% in the past 5 years. The revision group showed a similar weight loss to the overall group beyond 10 years. The systematic review of all bariatric procedures with 10 or more years of follow-up showed greater than 50% EWL for all current procedures. The weighted mean at maximum follow-up for LAGB was 54.2% EWL and for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was 54.0% EWL. The LAGB study from 1 center demonstrates a durable weight loss with 47% EWL maintained to 15 years. This weight loss occurred regardless of whether any revisional procedures were needed. A systematic review shows substantial and similar long-term weight losses for LAGB and other bariatric procedures.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Wideochir Inne Tech Maloinwazyjne
                Wideochir Inne Tech Maloinwazyjne
                WIITM
                Videosurgery and other Miniinvasive Techniques
                Termedia Publishing House
                1895-4588
                2299-0054
                29 March 2017
                June 2017
                : 12
                : 2
                : 140-146
                Affiliations
                [1 ]2 nd Department of General Surgery, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
                [2 ]Centre for Research, Training and Innovation in Surgery (CERTAIN Surgery), Krakow, Poland
                [3 ]Department of General, Oncological, Metabolic and Thoracic Surgery, Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland
                [4 ]Students’ Scientific Group at 2 nd Department of Surgery, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence Maciej Walędziak MD, Department of General, Oncological, Metabolic and Thoracic Surgery, Military Institute of Medicine, 128 Szaserów St, 04-141 Warsaw, Poland. phone: +48 606 387 636. e-mail: maciej.waledziak@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                29706
                10.5114/wiitm.2017.66868
                5502334
                Copyright: © 2017 Fundacja Videochirurgii

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) License, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.

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