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      Performance of creatinine and cystatin C GFR estimating equations in an HIV-positive population on antiretrovirals.

      Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999)
      Anti-HIV Agents, adverse effects, therapeutic use, Biological Markers, blood, Creatinine, Cystatin C, Female, Glomerular Filtration Rate, drug effects, physiology, HIV Seropositivity, complications, drug therapy, physiopathology, Humans, Iohexol, pharmacokinetics, Male, Middle Aged, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic, diagnosis, etiology

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          To evaluate the performance of Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) creatinine, cystatin C, and creatinine-cystatin C estimating equations in HIV-positive patients. We evaluated the performance of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study and CKD-EPI creatinine 2009, CKD-EPI cystatin C 2012, and CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C 2012 glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimating equations compared with GFR measured using plasma clearance of iohexol in 200 HIV-positive patients on stable antiretroviral therapy. Creatinine and cystatin C assays were standardized to certified reference materials. Of the 200 participants, median (IQR) CD4 count was 536 (421) and 61% had an undetectable HIV viral load. Mean (SD) measured GFR (mGFR) was 87 (26) mL/min per 1.73 m. All CKD-EPI equations performed better than the MDRD Study equation. All 3 CKD-EPI equations had similar bias and precision. The cystatin C equation was not more accurate than the creatinine equation. The creatinine-cystatin C equation was significantly more accurate than the cystatin C equation, and there was a trend toward greater accuracy than the creatinine equation. Accuracy was equal or better in most subgroups with the combined equation compared to either alone. The CKD-EPI cystatin C equation does not seem to be more accurate than the CKD-EPI creatinine equation in patients who are HIV-positive, supporting the use of the CKD-EPI creatinine equation for routine clinical care for use in North American populations with HIV. The use of both filtration markers together as a confirmatory test for decreased estimated GFR based on creatinine in individuals who are HIV-positive requires further study.

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