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      The effects of life history and sexual selection on male and female plumage colouration.

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          Abstract

          Classical sexual selection theory provides a well-supported conceptual framework for understanding the evolution and signalling function of male ornaments. It predicts that males obtain greater fitness benefits than females through multiple mating because sperm are cheaper to produce than eggs. Sexual selection should therefore lead to the evolution of male-biased secondary sexual characters. However, females of many species are also highly ornamented. The view that this is due to a correlated genetic response to selection on males was widely accepted as an explanation for female ornamentation for over 100 years and current theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that genetic constraints can limit sex-specific trait evolution. Alternatively, female ornamentation can be the outcome of direct selection for signalling needs. Since few studies have explored interspecific patterns of both male and female elaboration, our understanding of the evolution of animal ornamentation remains incomplete, especially over broad taxonomic scales. Here we use a new method to quantify plumage colour of all ~6,000 species of passerine birds to determine the main evolutionary drivers of ornamental colouration in both sexes. We found that conspecific male and female colour elaboration are strongly correlated, suggesting that evolutionary changes in one sex are constrained by changes in the other sex. Both sexes are more ornamented in larger species and in species living in tropical environments. Ornamentation in females (but not males) is increased in cooperative breeders--species in which female-female competition for reproductive opportunities and other resources related to breeding may be high. Finally, strong sexual selection on males has antagonistic effects, causing an increase in male colouration but a considerably more pronounced reduction in female ornamentation. Our results indicate that although there may be genetic constraints to sexually independent colour evolution, both female and male ornamentation are strongly and often differentially related to morphological, social and life-history variables.

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          Most cited references42

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          Uninformative Parameters and Model Selection Using Akaike's Information Criterion

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            Phylogenies and the Comparative Method: A General Approach to Incorporating Phylogenetic Information into the Analysis of Interspecific Data

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              Sexual Selection, Social Competition, and Speciation

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                1476-4687
                0028-0836
                Nov 19 2015
                : 527
                : 7578
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Institute of Natural &Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Auckland 0745, New Zealand.
                [2 ] Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada.
                [3 ] School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia.
                [4 ] Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Am Obstberg 1, 78315 Radolfzell, Germany.
                [5 ] Department of Behavioural Ecology and Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Eberhard Gwinner Str, 82319 Seewiesen, Germany.
                Article
                nature15509
                10.1038/nature15509
                26536112
                40ec72aa-15b0-4983-a7a4-1c27e7678a9c

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