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      São Paulo urban heat islands have a higher incidence of dengue than other urban areas

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          Abstract

          Urban heat islands are characterized by high land surface temperature, low humidity, and poor vegetation, and considered to favor the transmission of the mosquito-borne dengue fever that is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. We analyzed the recorded dengue incidence in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, in 2010-2011, in terms of multiple environmental and socioeconomic variables. Geographical information systems, thermal remote sensing images, and census data were used to classify city areas according to land surface temper- ature, vegetation cover, population density, socioeconomic status, and housing standards. Of the 7415 dengue cases, a majority (93.1%) mapped to areas with land surface temperature >28 ◦ C. The dengue incidence rate (cases per 100,000 inhabitants) was low (3.2 cases) in high vegetation cover areas, but high (72.3 cases) in low vegetation cover areas where the land surface temperature was 29 ± 2 ◦ C. Interestingly, a multiple cluster analysis phenogram showed more dengue cases clustered in areas of land surface temperature >32 ◦ C, than in areas characterized as low socioeconomic zones, high population density areas, or slum-like areas. In laboratory experiments, A. aegypti mosquito larval development, blood feeding, and oviposition associated positively with temperatures of 28-32 ◦ C, indicating these temperatures to be favorable for dengue transmission. Thus, among all the variables studied, dengue incidence was most affected by the temperature.

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          Impact of daily temperature fluctuations on dengue virus transmission by Aedes aegypti.

          Most studies on the ability of insect populations to transmit pathogens consider only constant temperatures and do not account for realistic daily temperature fluctuations that can impact vector-pathogen interactions. Here, we show that diurnal temperature range (DTR) affects two important parameters underlying dengue virus (DENV) transmission by Aedes aegypti. In two independent experiments using different DENV serotypes, mosquitoes were less susceptible to virus infection and died faster under larger DTR around the same mean temperature. Large DTR (20 °C) decreased the probability of midgut infection, but not duration of the virus extrinsic incubation period (EIP), compared with moderate DTR (10 °C) or constant temperature. A thermodynamic model predicted that at mean temperatures 18 °C, larger DTR reduces DENV transmission. The negative impact of DTR on Ae. aegypti survival indicates that large temperature fluctuations will reduce the probability of vector survival through EIP and expectation of infectious life. Seasonal variation in the amplitude of daily temperature fluctuations helps to explain seasonal forcing of DENV transmission at locations where average temperature does not vary seasonally and mosquito abundance is not associated with dengue incidence. Mosquitoes lived longer and were more likely to become infected under moderate temperature fluctuations, which is typical of the high DENV transmission season than under large temperature fluctuations, which is typical of the low DENV transmission season. Our findings reveal the importance of considering short-term temperature variations when studying DENV transmission dynamics.
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            A simple method of resolution of a distribution into gaussian components.

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              Effect of temperature on the vector efficiency of Aedes aegypti for dengue 2 virus.

              The effect of temperature on the ability of Aedes aegypti to transmit dengue (DEN) 2 virus to rhesus monkeys was assessed as a possible explanation for the seasonal variation in the incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangkok, Thailand. In two laboratory experiments, a Bangkok strain of Ae. aegypti was allowed to feed upon viremic monkeys infected with DEN-2 virus. Blood-engorged mosquitoes were separated into two groups and retained at constant temperatures. Virus infection and transmission rates were determined for Ae. aegypti at intervals ranging from 4 to 7 days during a 25-day incubation period. Results of the first experiment for mosquitoes infected with a low dose of DEN-2 virus and maintained at 20, 24, 26, and 30 degrees C, indicated that the infection rate ranged from 25% to 75% depending on the incubation period. However, DEN-2 virus was transmitted to monkeys only by Ae. aegypti retained at 30 degrees C for 25 days. In the second experiment, the infection rate for Ae. aegypti that ingested a higher viral dose, and incubated at 26, 30, 32, and 35 degrees C ranged from 67% to 95%. DEN-2 virus was transmitted to monkeys only by mosquitoes maintained at greater than or equal to 30 degrees C. The extrinsic incubation period was 12 days for mosquitoes at 30 degrees C, and was reduced to 7 days for mosquitoes incubated at 32 degrees C and 35 degrees C. These results imply that temperature-induced variations in the vector efficiency of Ae. aegypti may be a significant determinant in the annual cyclic pattern of dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Bangkok.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                bjid
                Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
                Braz J Infect Dis
                Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases (Salvador )
                1678-4391
                April 2015
                : 19
                : 2
                : 146-155
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia & Inovação Brazil
                [2 ] Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de São Paulo Brazil
                [3 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
                [4 ] Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Entomologia Molecular Brazil
                [5 ] Instituto Butantan Brazil
                Article
                S1413-86702015000200146
                10.1016/j.bjid.2014.10.004
                25523076
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                INFECTIOUS DISEASES

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