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      Plant pathogens and integrated defence responses to infection.

      Nature

      Signal Transduction, physiology, genetics, Proteins, virology, parasitology, microbiology, immunology, Plants, Plant Physiological Phenomena, Plant Diseases, Genes, Plant, Animals

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          Abstract

          Plants cannot move to escape environmental challenges. Biotic stresses result from a battery of potential pathogens: fungi, bacteria, nematodes and insects intercept the photosynthate produced by plants, and viruses use replication machinery at the host's expense. Plants, in turn, have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to perceive such attacks, and to translate that perception into an adaptive response. Here, we review the current knowledge of recognition-dependent disease resistance in plants. We include a few crucial concepts to compare and contrast plant innate immunity with that more commonly associated with animals. There are appreciable differences, but also surprising parallels.

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          Most cited references 95

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          Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

          The flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana is an important model system for identifying genes and determining their functions. Here we report the analysis of the genomic sequence of Arabidopsis. The sequenced regions cover 115.4 megabases of the 125-megabase genome and extend into centromeric regions. The evolution of Arabidopsis involved a whole-genome duplication, followed by subsequent gene loss and extensive local gene duplications, giving rise to a dynamic genome enriched by lateral gene transfer from a cyanobacterial-like ancestor of the plastid. The genome contains 25,498 genes encoding proteins from 11,000 families, similar to the functional diversity of Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans--the other sequenced multicellular eukaryotes. Arabidopsis has many families of new proteins but also lacks several common protein families, indicating that the sets of common proteins have undergone differential expansion and contraction in the three multicellular eukaryotes. This is the first complete genome sequence of a plant and provides the foundations for more comprehensive comparison of conserved processes in all eukaryotes, identifying a wide range of plant-specific gene functions and establishing rapid systematic ways to identify genes for crop improvement.
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            The WRKY superfamily of plant transcription factors.

            The WRKY proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors with up to 100 representatives in Arabidopsis. Family members appear to be involved in the regulation of various physio-logical programs that are unique to plants, including pathogen defense, senescence and trichome development. In spite of the strong conservation of their DNA-binding domain, the overall structures of WRKY proteins are highly divergent and can be categorized into distinct groups, which might reflect their different functions.
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              Toll-like receptors in the induction of the innate immune response.

               A Aderem,  R Ulevitch (2000)
              The innate immune response is the first line of defence against infectious disease. The principal challenge for the host is to detect the pathogen and mount a rapid defensive response. A group of proteins that comprise the Toll or Toll-like family of receptors perform this role in vertebrate and invertebrate organisms. This reflects a remarkable conservation of function and it is therefore not surprising that studies of the mechanism by which they act has revealed new and important insights into host defence.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1038/35081161
                11459065

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