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      Effects of Aminoguanidine and Meloxicam on Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E Production Induced by Lipopolysaccharide in the Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary of the Rat

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          Background/Objective: Injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into male rats activates genes that in turn induce many enzymes that participate in the animals’ response to LPS. There is induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in many tissues. This induction could result from combination with cell surface LPS receptors that directly induce both genes, or the nitric oxide (NO) released as a result of iNOS induction could induce COX-2. Methods: To distinguish between these two possibilities, specific inhibitors of iNOS and COX-2 activity, aminoguanidine (AG) and meloxicam (MLX), respectively, were injected either peripherally or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.), and their effect on NO and prostaglandin E (PGE) production induced by LPS in the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) and anterior pituitary gland (AP) were determined. Results: Peripheral injection of AG blocked iNOS-derived NO production in the AP but not in the MBH. When AG was injected i.c.v., iNOS-derived NO production in the MBH was blocked. MLX injected peripherally blocked COX-2-derived PGE<sub>2</sub> production in the MBH and AP, whereas AG injected peripherally or i.c.v. was ineffective. Since AG was only effective in blocking iNOS-derived NO production in the MBH when injected i.c.v., AG apparently does not effectively cross the blood brain barrier, whereas MLX injected peripherally inhibited PGE production, probably by inhibiting COX-2 activity in both the MBH and AP. AG was ineffective in preventing the increase in PGE derived from COX-2 in either the MBH or AP. Conclusion: LPS directly induces both enzymes, iNOS and COX-2, in the hypothalamus and AP.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Nitric oxide synthases: roles, tolls, and controls.

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            Selective inhibition of the inducible nitric oxide synthase by aminoguanidine.

            Overproduction of the free radical nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory and immunologically mediated diseases as well as complications of diabetes. In the present study we have demonstrated that aminoguanidine selectively inhibits the cytokine-inducible isoform of NO synthase which appears to be responsible for the excess production of NO linked to these disease states. By using organ, cell, and enzyme-based measurements we have shown that aminoguanidine is equipotent to NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMA) as an inhibitor of the cytokine-induced isoform of NO synthase but is 10 to 100-fold less potent as an inhibitor of the constitutive isoform. Thus, aminoguanidine may be useful as a selective inhibitor of the inducible NO synthase in the treatment of disease states characterized by the pathological overproduction of NO.
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              Cloning two isoforms of rat cyclooxygenase: differential regulation of their expression.

               P Chanmugam,  Y Xia,  L Feng (1993)
              Two isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX) have been identified in eukaryotic cells: COX-1 encoded by a 2.8-kb mRNA, and a mitogen-inducible COX-2 encoded by a 4-kb mRNA. We have cloned the COX-1 and COX-2 cDNAs from the cDNA library constructed from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rat peritoneal macrophages. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that COX-1 contained 602 amino acids, whereas COX-2 contained 604 amino acids. There is 95% conservation of the nucleotide sequence in the open reading frame of COX-1 between the rat and the mouse, while the homology of the 3' untranslated region is 68% except for a 150 bp segment adjacent to the stop codon which is nonhomologous with the mouse. Transfection of both COX cDNAs into Cos-7 cells resulted in increased COX activity. In rat vascular smooth muscle cells, interleukin-1 beta selectively increased the expression of COX-2, but not that of COX-1, as assessed by enzyme activity, immunoprecipitation of COX proteins, and mRNA analysis. Only the brain among tissues tested exhibits basal expression of COX-2 as the major form of the enzyme. However, COX-2 mRNA was expressed in vivo in the lung and kidney, but not in the heart, after systemic administration of LPS, suggesting that COX-2 but not COX-1 plays a major role in producing COX-derived products of arachidonic acid during endotoxic shock. Thus, the two COX isoforms were differentially expressed, and COX-2 was selectively induced in response to inflammatory stimuli in rats.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                April 2002
                19 April 2002
                : 9
                : 5
                : 276-285
                aCentro de Estudios Farmacológicos y Botánicos, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, bCátedra de Fisiología, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina; cPennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, La., USA
                54290 Neuroimmunomodulation 2001;9:276–285
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 31, Pages: 10
                Original Paper


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