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      Variation and evolution of the complex life cycle in Adelgidae (Hemiptera) : Complex life cycle of adelgids

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      Entomological Science
      Wiley

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          The population biology of oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae).

          Oak gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, Cynipini) are characterized by possession of complex cyclically parthenogenetic life cycles and the ability to induce a wide diversity of highly complex species- and generation-specific galls on oaks and other Fagaceae. The galls support species-rich, closed communities of inquilines and parasitoids that have become a model system in community ecology. We review recent advances in the ecology of oak cynipids, with particular emphasis on life cycle characteristics and the dynamics of the interactions between host plants, gall wasps, and natural enemies. We assess the importance of gall traits in structuring oak cynipid communities and summarize the evidence for bottom-up and top-down effects across trophic levels. We identify major unanswered questions and suggest approaches for the future.
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            Ecology and evolution of sex in aphids

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              Mitochondrial DNA from Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) Suggests Cryptic Speciation and Pinpoints the Source of the Introduction to Eastern North America

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Entomological Science
                Wiley
                13438786
                January 2012
                January 2012
                October 14 2011
                : 15
                : 1
                : 13-22
                Article
                10.1111/j.1479-8298.2011.00483.x
                413231e4-d545-4322-8079-6e5021e76953
                © 2011

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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