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      Chronic Cystamine Treatment Inhibits Small Artery Remodelling in Rats


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          Background/Aims: We investigated whether the tissue transglutaminase inhibitor cystamine is able to inhibit remodelling of small arteries in vivo, a possibility suggested by recent in vitro experiments. Methods: Using osmotic minipumps, phenylephrine, cystamine and/or amlodipine were infused for 1–2 weeks into 9-week-old Wistar rats. Small arteries were then removed for pressure myograph investigation. Results: Phenylephrine infusion caused inward remodelling of the small arteries compared to vehicle infusion. The remodelling was abolished by concomitant infusion with cystamine; blood pressure was unaffected. Second, we investigated whether cystamine was able to inhibit outward remodelling. Rats were first infused with phenylephrine for 1 week, and some were infused for a further week with amlodipine with or without cystamine. Amlodipine caused 24% outward remodelling compared to vessels from rats at completion of the phenylephrine infusion. The outward remodelling was attenuated 86% by concomitant cystamine infusion. A series of in vitro experiments supported the inhibitory action of cystamine on tissue transglutaminase. Conclusion: The ability of cystamine to inhibit inward remodelling independent of blood pressure is consistent with a role of tissue transgluaminase in this process. It remains to be determined if the ability of cystamine to inhibit outward remodelling also involves inhibition of tissue transglutaminase.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Transglutaminases: crosslinking enzymes with pleiotropic functions.

          Blood coagulation, skin-barrier formation, hardening of the fertilization envelope, extracellular-matrix assembly and other important biological processes are dependent on the rapid generation of covalent crosslinks between proteins. These reactions--which are catalysed by transglutaminases--endow the resulting supramolecular structure with extra rigidity and resistance against proteolytic degradation. Some transglutaminases function as molecular switches in cytoskeletal scaffolding and modulate protein-protein interactions. Having knowledge of these enzymes is essential for understanding the aetiologies of diverse hereditary diseases of the blood and skin, and various autoimmune, inflammatory and degenerative conditions.
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            Prevalence of Celiac disease among children in Finland.

            Wheat, rye, and barley proteins induce celiac disease, an autoimmune type of gastrointestinal disorder, in genetically susceptible persons. Because the disease may be underdiagnosed, we estimated the prevalence of the disease and tested the hypothesis that assays for serum autoantibodies can be used to detect untreated celiac disease and that positive findings correlate with specific HLA haplotypes. Serum samples were collected from 3654 students (age range, 7 to 16 years) in 1994 and screened in 2001 for endomysial and tissue transglutaminase antibodies. HLA typing was also performed on stored blood samples. All antibody-positive subjects were asked to undergo small-bowel biopsy in 2001. Of the 3654 subjects, 56 (1.5 percent) had positive antibody tests, as determined in 2001. Results of the two antibody tests were highly concordant. As of 1994, none of the subjects had received a clinical diagnosis of celiac disease, but 10 who had positive tests for both antibodies in serum obtained in 1994 received the diagnosis between 1994 and 2001. Of the 36 other subjects with positive antibody assays who agreed to undergo biopsy in 2001, 27 had evidence of celiac disease on biopsy. Thus, the estimated biopsy-proved prevalence was 1 case in 99 children. All but two of the antibody-positive subjects had either the HLA-DQ2 or the HLA-DQ8 haplotype. The prevalence of the combination of antibody positivity and an HLA haplotype associated with celiac disease was 1 in 67. The presence of serum tissue transglutaminase and endomysial autoantibodies is predictive of small-bowel abnormalities indicative of celiac disease. There is a good correlation between autoantibody positivity and specific HLA haplotypes. We estimate that the prevalence of celiac disease among Finnish schoolchildren is at least 1 case in 99 children. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Transglutaminase 2: an enigmatic enzyme with diverse functions.

              Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is an inducible transamidating acyltransferase that catalyzes Ca(2+)-dependent protein modifications. It acts as a G protein in transmembrane signalling and as a cell surface adhesion mediator, this distinguishes it from other members of the transglutaminase family. The sequence motifs and domains revealed in the recent TG2 structure, can each be assigned distinct cellular functions, including the regulation of cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell death. Ablation of TG2 in mice results in impaired wound healing, autoimmunity and diabetes, reflecting the number and variety of TG2 functions. An important role for the enzyme in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease, fibrosis and neurodegenerative disorders has also been demonstrated, making TG2 an important therapeutic target.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                October 2007
                26 July 2007
                : 44
                : 6
                : 471-482
                Departments of aPharmacology and bPhysiology, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark
                106465 J Vasc Res 2007;44:471–482
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 2, References: 47, Pages: 12
                Research Paper


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