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      Efficacy of tiotropium/olodaterol on lung volume, exercise capacity, and physical activity

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          This study evaluated the efficacy of tiotropium/olodaterol vs tiotropium on lung function, exercise capacity, and physical activity in patients with COPD.

          Patients and methods

          A total of 184 patients aged ≥40 years with COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage II–IV) received tiotropium/olodaterol for 6 weeks, then tiotropium for 6 weeks, or vice versa. The primary endpoint was inspiratory capacity (IC) at peak post-dose.


          Adjusted mean IC after 6-week treatment was 1.990 L with tiotropium/olodaterol vs 1.875 L with tiotropium (difference: 115 mL; 95% CI: 77, 153; p<0.0001). Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (difference: 105 mL; 95% CI: 88, 123), forced vital capacity (difference: 163 mL; 95% CI: 130, 197), and slow vital capacity (difference: 134 mL; 95% CI: 91, 176) improved with tiotropium/olodaterol (all p<0.0001). Adjusted mean 6-min walk distance was similar between treatments in the overall population but was significantly increased with tiotropium/olodaterol in the subgroup with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage III/IV at baseline (difference: 18.1 m; 95% CI: 2.3, 33.9; p=0.0254). In a post hoc analysis, tiotropium/olodaterol improved the values for ≥2.0 metabolic equivalents (difference: 5.0 min; 95% CI: 0.4, 9.7; p=0.0337).


          Tiotropium/olodaterol significantly improved IC compared with tiotropium and potentially enhanced the exercise capacity in COPD patients. A slight improvement in physical activity of relatively more than moderate intensity was also seen with tiotropium/olodaterol.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Improvement in exercise tolerance with the combination of tiotropium and pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD.

          Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) improves exercise tolerance in COPD patients. Tiotropium is a once-daily, inhaled anticholinergic bronchodilator that provides sustained 24-h improvements in airflow and lung hyperinflation reduction. We hypothesized that ventilatory mechanics improvements from tiotropium would permit enhanced ability to train muscles of ambulation and therefore augment exercise tolerance benefits of PR. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (tiotropium, n = 47; placebo, n = 44), tiotropium (18 microg qd) was administered to COPD patients participating in 8 weeks of PR (treadmill training three times a week; >/= 30 min per session) at 17 sites. Study drug was administered 5 weeks prior to, 8 weeks during, and 12 weeks following PR. The primary end point was treadmill walking (0% incline) endurance time at 80% of maximum speed attained in an initial incremental test. The transition dyspnea index (TDI), St. George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ), and rescue albuterol use were secondary end points. Mean age of the 93 participants was 67 years, 57% were men, and mean FEV(1) was 0.88 L (34% predicted). Mean endurance time differences (tiotropium minus placebo) prior to PR, at the end of PR, and 12 weeks after PR were 1.65 min (p = 0.183), 5.35 min (p = 0.025), and 6.60 min (p = 0.018), respectively. Mean TDI focal scores at the end of PR were 1.75 for tiotropium and 0.91 for placebo (p > 0.05). At 12 weeks after PR, TDI focal scores were 1.75 for tiotropium and 0.08 for placebo (p 0.05). Mean albuterol use declined following PR plus tiotropium, compared to PR alone (p
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            Tiotropium + olodaterol shows clinically meaningful improvements in quality of life.

            Tiotropium + olodaterol improves lung function and symptoms compared to monotherapies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The OTEMTO 1 and 2 studies investigated the effects of tiotropium + olodaterol on lung function and health-related quality of life compared to placebo in patients with moderate to severe COPD.
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              Pedometers to enhance physical activity in COPD: a randomised controlled trial

              Physical inactivity is a cardinal feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Pedometers, which have been used in healthy populations, might also increase physical activity in patients with COPD. COPD patients taking part in a 3-month individualised programme to promote an increase in their daily physical activity were randomised to either a standard programme of physical activity encouragement alone, or a pedometer-based programme. Assessments were performed by investigators blinded to treatment allocation. Change in average 1-week daily step count, 6-min walking distance (6MWD), modified Medical Research Council scale, St George’s respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ) and COPD assessment test (CAT) were compared between groups. 102 patients were recruited, of whom 97 completed the programme (pedometer group: n=50; control group: n=47); 60.8% were male with a mean±sd age of 68.7±8.5 years, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) 66.1±19.4% and FEV1/forced vital capacity 55.2±9.5%. Both groups had comparable characteristics at baseline. The pedometer group had significantly greater improvements in: physical activity 3080±3254 steps·day−1 versus 138.3±1950 steps·day−1 (p<0.001); SGRQ −8.8±12.2 versus −3.8±10.9 (p=0.01); CAT score −3.5±5.5 versus −0.6±6.6 (p=0.001); and 6MWD 12.4±34.6 versus −0.7±24.4 m (p=0.02) than patients receiving activity encouragement only. A simple physical activity enhancement programme using pedometers can effectively improve physical activity level and quality of life in COPD patients.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                01 May 2018
                : 13
                : 1407-1419
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization Wakayama Hospital, Wakayama
                [3 ]Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo
                [4 ]Clinical Research Unit of Respiratory Pathophysiology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Health Care and Nursing, Chiba
                [5 ]Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine
                [6 ]Medical Division, Nippon Boehringer Ingelheim Co., Ltd
                [7 ]Clinical Information Division Data Science Center, Statistics Analysis Department 1, EPS Corporation, Tokyo
                [8 ]Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Masakazu Ichinose, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574, Japan, Tel +81 022 717 8534, Fax +81 022 717 8549, Email ichinose@
                © 2018 Ichinose et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                japanese, copd, fev1, fvc, inspiratory capacity


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