To evaluate risk factors associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization in a long-term-care facility (LTCF) for the elderly in Slovenia. A 351-bed community LTCF for the elderly. This was a case-control study. MRSA carriage was identified in 102 of 127 residents of the facility's nursing unit. Two swabs were taken: one from the anterior nares and one from the largest skin lesion. If no skin lesions were present, the axillae and the groin area were swabbed. Data were collected regarding gender, age, length of stay in the facility, underlying conditions, functional status, presence of wounds or pressure sores, presence of catheters, antibiotic treatments, and hospital admissions. We detected MRSA in 12 participants. Risk factors independently and significantly associated with MRSA colonization on the multivariate analysis were antibiotic treatments within 1 month before the investigation (odds ratio, 5.087; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 25.48; P = .048) and multiple hospital admissions in the 3 months before the investigation (odds ratio, 6.277; 95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 30.05; P = .022). This is the first assessment of risk factors for colonization with MRSA in an LTCF in Slovenia. MRSA poses a problem in this LTCE Our observations may be valuable in implementing active surveillance cultures in infection control programs in Slovenian LTCFs.