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      Genetic associations in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis


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          To investigate the genetic associations of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), the genetic difference between PCV and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and the genotype-phenotype correlation of PCV.


          A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. Published articles about genetic associations of PCV identified from a literature search were reviewed. The following data from individual studies were extracted and analyzed: 1) comparison of genetic polymorphisms between PCV and controls; 2) comparison of genetic polymorphisms between PCV and AMD; and 3) comparison of phenotypes between different genotype groups.


          A total of 33 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. With meta-analyses, variants in four genes were found to be significantly associated with PCV: LOC387715 rs10490924 (n=9, allelic odds ratio [OR]=2.27, p<0.00001), HTRA1 rs11200638 (n=4, OR=2.72, p<0.00001), CFH rs1061170 (n=4, OR=1.72, p<0.00001), CFH rs800292 (n=5, OR=2.10, p<0.00001), and C2 rs547154 (n=3, OR=0.56, p=0.01). LOC387715 rs10490924 was the only variant showing a significant difference between PCV and wet AMD (n=5, OR=0.66, p<0.00001). The risk genotypes of rs10490924 were associated with larger lesion size, greater chance of vitreous hemorrhage, and worse therapeutic response in PCV.


          LOC387715 rs10490924 was associated with PCV and its clinical manifestations, and showed a discrepant distribution between PCV and AMD. Variants in HTRA1, CFH, and C2 were also associated with PCV.

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          Idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (IPCV).

          Eleven patients, 40 to 71 years old, had a choroidal vasculopathy that led to hemorrhagic and exudative macular degeneration. The patients had peculiar polypoidal, subretinal, vascular lesions associated with serious and hemorrhagic detachments of the retinal pigment epithelium. This macular disorder, which we have named idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (IPCV), appears to represent a distinct entity that differs clinically and demographically from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other macular diseases associated with subretinal neovascularization. Recognition of this condition is important because it may have specific risk factors, natural course, and management considerations that differ from those of age-related macular degeneration.
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            Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and neovascular age-related macular degeneration: same or different disease?

            Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is the commonest cause of severe visual impairment in older adults in Caucasian white populations. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) has been described as a separate clinical entity differing from nAMD and other macular diseases associated with subretinal neovascularization. It remains controversial as to whether or not PCV represents a sub-type of nAMD. This article summarizes the current literature on the clinical, pathophysiological and epidemiological features and treatment responses of PCV and compares this condition to nAMD. Patients with PCV are younger and more likely Asians, and eyes with PCV lack drusen, often present with serosanguinous maculopathy or hemorrhagic pigment epithelial detachment, and have differing responses to photodynamic therapy and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents. There are also significant differences in angiographic and optical coherence tomography features between PCV and nAMD. Histopathological studies suggest differences in the anatomical details of the associated vascular abnormalities in the retina and choroids and the relative role of VEGF. There is emerging evidence of common molecular genetic determinants involving complement pathway and common environmental risk factors (e.g. smoking). Such information could further assist clinicians involved in the care of elderly patients with these conditions.
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              A variant of mitochondrial protein LOC387715/ARMS2, not HTRA1, is strongly associated with age-related macular degeneration.

              Genetic variants at chromosomes 1q31-32 and 10q26 are strongly associated with susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a common blinding disease of the elderly. We demonstrate, by evaluating 45 tag SNPs spanning HTRA1, PLEKHA1, and predicted gene LOC387715/ARMS2, that rs10490924 SNP alone, or a variant in strong linkage disequilibrium, can explain the bulk of association between the 10q26 chromosomal region and AMD. A previously suggested causal SNP, rs11200638, and other examined SNPs in the region are only indirectly associated with the disease. Contrary to previous reports, we show that rs11200638 SNP has no significant impact on HTRA1 promoter activity in three different cell lines, and HTRA1 mRNA expression exhibits no significant change between control and AMD retinas. However, SNP rs10490924 shows the strongest association with AMD (P = 5.3 x 10(-30)), revealing an estimated relative risk of 2.66 for GT heterozygotes and 7.05 for TT homozygotes. The rs10490924 SNP results in nonsynonymous A69S alteration in the predicted protein LOC387715/ARMS2, which has a highly conserved ortholog in chimpanzee, but not in other vertebrate sequences. We demonstrate that LOC387715/ARMS2 mRNA is detected in the human retina and various cell lines and encodes a 12-kDa protein, which localizes to the mitochondrial outer membrane when expressed in mammalian cells. We propose that rs10490924 represents a major susceptibility variant for AMD at 10q26. A likely biological mechanism is that the A69S change in the LOC387715/ARMS2 protein affects its presumptive function in mitochondria.

                Author and article information

                Mol Vis
                Mol. Vis
                Molecular Vision
                Molecular Vision
                04 April 2012
                : 18
                : 816-829
                [1 ]Joint Shantou International Eye Center, Shantou University & the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shantou, China
                [2 ]Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Haoyu Chen, Joint Shantou International Eye Center, Shantou University & the Chinese University of Hong Kong, North Dongxia Road, Shantou, Guangdong, P.R. China 515041; Phone: +86-754-88393560; FAX: +86-754-88393560; email: drchenhaoyu@ 123456gmail.com
                87 2011MOLVIS0536
                Copyright © 2012 Molecular Vision.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 27 November 2011
                : 01 April 2012
                Research Article
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                Vision sciences
                Vision sciences


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