Aldosterone, the primary human mineralocorticoid, is a major regulator of intravascular volume and blood pressure. The capacity of the adrenal gland to produce aldosterone is controlled, in large part, by the regulated transcription of CYP11B2, the gene encoding aldosterone synthase. Aldosterone synthase is responsible for the conversion of 11-deoxycorticosterone to aldosterone and is expressed only within the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. The development of new systems for in vitro studies of expression has helped define molecular mechanisms that regulate this enzyme and thus the capacity of the adrenal gland to produce aldosterone. Both potassium and angiotensin II (ANG II) increase intracellular calcium levels, which regulate expression of CYP11B2 through transcription factors that interact with defined sites in the 5'-flanking region of the gene.