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      An ER-mitochondria tethering complex revealed by a synthetic biology screen.

      Science (New York, N.Y.)

      Animals, Calcium Signaling, genetics, Endoplasmic Reticulum, physiology, Membrane Proteins, metabolism, Mice, Mitochondria, Mitochondrial Proteins, Phospholipids, biosynthesis, Recombinant Fusion Proteins, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins

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          Abstract

          Communication between organelles is an important feature of all eukaryotic cells. To uncover components involved in mitochondria/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) junctions, we screened for mutants that could be complemented by a synthetic protein designed to artificially tether the two organelles. We identified the Mmm1/Mdm10/Mdm12/Mdm34 complex as a molecular tether between ER and mitochondria. The tethering complex was composed of proteins resident of both ER and mitochondria. With the use of genome-wide mapping of genetic interactions, we showed that the components of the tethering complex were functionally connected to phospholipid biosynthesis and calcium-signaling genes. In mutant cells, phospholipid biosynthesis was impaired. The tethering complex localized to discrete foci, suggesting that discrete sites of close apposition between ER and mitochondria facilitate interorganelle calcium and phospholipid exchange.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Global analysis of protein expression in yeast.

          The availability of complete genomic sequences and technologies that allow comprehensive analysis of global expression profiles of messenger RNA have greatly expanded our ability to monitor the internal state of a cell. Yet biological systems ultimately need to be explained in terms of the activity, regulation and modification of proteins--and the ubiquitous occurrence of post-transcriptional regulation makes mRNA an imperfect proxy for such information. To facilitate global protein analyses, we have created a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fusion library where each open reading frame is tagged with a high-affinity epitope and expressed from its natural chromosomal location. Through immunodetection of the common tag, we obtain a census of proteins expressed during log-phase growth and measurements of their absolute levels. We find that about 80% of the proteome is expressed during normal growth conditions, and, using additional sequence information, we systematically identify misannotated genes. The abundance of proteins ranges from fewer than 50 to more than 10(6) molecules per cell. Many of these molecules, including essential proteins and most transcription factors, are present at levels that are not readily detectable by other proteomic techniques nor predictable by mRNA levels or codon bias measurements.
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            Mitofusin 2 tethers endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria.

            Juxtaposition between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria is a common structural feature, providing the physical basis for intercommunication during Ca(2+) signalling; yet, the molecular mechanisms controlling this interaction are unknown. Here we show that mitofusin 2, a mitochondrial dynamin-related protein mutated in the inherited motor neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth type IIa, is enriched at the ER-mitochondria interface. Ablation or silencing of mitofusin 2 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and HeLa cells disrupts ER morphology and loosens ER-mitochondria interactions, thereby reducing the efficiency of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake in response to stimuli that generate inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate. An in vitro assay as well as genetic and biochemical evidences support a model in which mitofusin 2 on the ER bridges the two organelles by engaging in homotypic and heterotypic complexes with mitofusin 1 or 2 on the surface of mitochondria. Thus, mitofusin 2 tethers ER to mitochondria, a juxtaposition required for efficient mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake.
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              Close contacts with the endoplasmic reticulum as determinants of mitochondrial Ca2+ responses.

              The spatial relation between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in living HeLa cells was analyzed at high resolution in three dimensions with two differently colored, specifically targeted green fluorescent proteins. Numerous close contacts were observed between these organelles, and mitochondria in situ formed a largely interconnected, dynamic network. A Ca2+-sensitive photoprotein targeted to the outer face of the inner mitochondrial membrane showed that, upon opening of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)-gated channels of the ER, the mitochondrial surface was exposed to a higher concentration of Ca2+ than was the bulk cytosol. These results emphasize the importance of cell architecture and the distribution of organelles in regulation of Ca2+ signaling.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                19556461
                10.1126/science.1175088
                2933203

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