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      Colostrum Management: Keys to Optimizing Output and Uptake of Immunoglobulin G

      Frontiers in Animal Science
      Frontiers Media SA

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          Abstract

          Colostrum is essential for the health and wellbeing of dairy cattle. This review provides insight into different means of augmenting or enhancing colostrum quality including colostrum feeding, dry cow management, prepartum cow diets, freezing, pasteurization, colostrum additives, and colostrum replacers. Other components in colostrum such as maternal cells and their importance are discussed. New research is needed regarding the components in colostrum (bioactive peptides and growth factors) and their effects on the neonate. Colostrum replacers and a prediction equation to estimate colostrum quality are reviewed.

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          Colostrum Management for Dairy Calves

          Colostrum management is the single most important management factor in determining calf health and survival. Additional benefits of good colostrum management include improved rate of gain and future productivity. Successful colostrum management requires producers to provide calves with a sufficient volume of clean, high-quality colostrum within the first few hours of life. This article reviews the process of colostrogenesis and colostrum composition, and discusses key components in developing a successful colostrum management program. In addition, the article discusses approaches for monitoring and proposes new goals for passive immunity in dairy herds.
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            Effect of late-gestation maternal heat stress on growth and immune function of dairy calves.

            Heat stress during the dry period affects the cow's mammary gland development, metabolism, and immunity during the transition period. However, the effect of late-gestation heat stress on calf performance and immune status is unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of heat stress during the final ~45 d of gestation on growth and immune function of calves. Calves (17/treatment) were born to cows that were exposed to cooling (CL) or heat stress (HT) during the dry period. Only heifer calves (CL, n=12; HT, n=9) were used in measurements of growth and immune status after birth. Heifer calves were managed under identical conditions. All were fed 3.78 L of colostrum from their respective dams within 4 h of birth and were weaned at 2 mo of age (MOA). Body weight (BW) was obtained at weaning and then monthly until 7 MOA. Withers height (WH) was measured monthly from 3 to 7 MOA. Hematocrit and plasma total protein were assessed at birth, 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25, and 28 d of age. Total serum IgG was evaluated at 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, 18, 21, 25, and 28 d of age, and apparent efficiency of absorption was calculated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated at 7, 28, 42, and 56 d of age, and proliferation rate was measured by (3)H-thymidine incorporation in vitro. Blood cortisol concentration was measured in the dams during the dry period and in calves in the preweaning period. Gestation length was 4d shorter for HT cows compared with CL cows. Calves from CL cows had greater BW than calves from HT cows at birth (42.5 vs. 36.5 kg). Compared with CL heifers, HT heifers had decreased weaning BW (78.5 vs. 65.9 kg) but similar BW (154.6 vs. 146.4 kg) and WH (104.8 vs. 103.4 cm) from 3 to 7 MOA. Compared with CL, heifers from HT cows had less total plasma protein (6.3 vs. 5.9 g/dL), total serum IgG (1,577.3 vs. 1,057.8 mg/dL), and apparent efficiency of absorption (33.6 vs. 19.2%), and tended to have decreased hematocrit (33 vs. 30%). Additionally, CL heifers had greater peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation relative to HT heifers (23.8 vs. 14.1 fold). Compared with CL, late-gestation HT did not affect the blood cortisol concentration of dams during the dry period or that of the calves in the preweaning period, but CL calves tended to have increased circulating cortisol at birth (7.6 vs. 5.7 µg/dL). We conclude that heat stress of the dam during the dry period compromises the fetal growth and immune function of offspring from birth through weaning.
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              A survey of bovine colostrum composition and colostrum management practices on Pennsylvania dairy farms.

              Colostrum composition and management were surveyed via sample and data collection from 55 dairy farms in Pennsylvania. Colostrum samples were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, total solids, ash, Ig, lactoferrin, water- and fat-soluble vitamins, and minerals. Mean percentages of fat, protein, and lactose in colostrum were 6.7, 14.9, and 2.5, respectively. Concentrations of IgG1, IgG2, IgA, IgM, and lactoferrin were 35.0, 6.0, 1.7, 4.3, and 0.8 mg/mL, respectively. Mean concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins, including retinol, tocopherol, and beta-carotene, were 4.9, 2.9, and 0.7 microg/g, respectively. Mean concentrations of water-soluble vitamins were 0.34, 0.90, 4.55, 0.60, 0.15, 0.21, and 0.04 microg/mL for niacin, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxine, respectively. Mean concentrations (mg/kg) of selected minerals in colostrum were also determined (Ca 4,716; P 4,452; Mg 733; Na 1,058; K 2,845; Zn 38; Fe 5.3; Cu 0.3; S 2,595; and Mn 0.1). The findings of this study revealed that the mean concentrations of most nutrients in colostrum have increased when compared with values previously reported. Results also showed that management practices have improved over time, particularly with regard to colostrum storage and feeding. Additionally, we observed that herd size influenced colostrum management and quality. It can be inferred, based on these findings, that although improvements have been made with regard to colostrum management and quality, there is still a need to educate producers on issues related to storage and timely feeding of colostrum to increase passive transfer and decrease the rate of calf morbidity and mortality.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Frontiers in Animal Science
                Front. Anim. Sci.
                Frontiers Media SA
                2673-6225
                June 15 2022
                June 15 2022
                : 3
                Article
                10.3389/fanim.2022.914361
                415244c9-0e5d-438d-9aa2-4033278b21b8
                © 2022

                Free to read

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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