We have studied the effect of superior spermatic nerve (SSN) section on testicular gonadotropin receptors and in vitro androgen production by immature rat testis. Bilateral testicular denervation had no effect on testicular weight, serum androgens, LH, FSH and PRL levels. Denervation resulted in a significant inhibition of hCG stimulated in vitro androgen production. A reduction in the number of testicular LH receptors was observed after SSN section, while FSH binding sites remained unchanged. These results indicate that the number of LH receptors and testicular steroidogenic response to hCG are influenced by nerves reaching the testis.