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      Transcript abundance of hormone receptors, mammalian target of rapamycin pathway-related kinases, insulin-like growth factor I, and milk proteins in porcine mammary tissue.

      Journal of animal science

      metabolism, Weaning, Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins, genetics, Lactation, Mammary Glands, Animal, Gene Expression Regulation, Milk Proteins, Peptide Hormones, Peripartum Period, Pregnancy, RNA, Messenger, analysis, Receptors, Glucocorticoid, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, veterinary, Sus scrofa, Animals, Female

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          Prolactin, glucocorticoids, and insulin are commonly used to induce milk protein synthesis in bovine mammary cell cultures. In addition, administration of GH increases milk yield in dairy cows, likely via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and IGF-I synthesis. As such, the hypothesis of this study was that mRNA abundance of hormone receptors, mammalian target of mTOR pathway-related kinases, IGF-I, and milk protein-encoding genes increases in the porcine mammary gland in response to greater lactation demand. Selected genes included those encoding for receptors of GH (GHR), insulin (INSR), glucocorticoid (NR3C1), prolactin (PRLR), IGF-I (IGF-I), mTOR (FRAP1), and p70S6 kinases (RPS6KB1), and the milk proteins α-lactalbumin (LALBA) and β-casein (CSN2). Mammary tissue was biopsied from 4 sows on d 110 of gestation (prepartum), d 5 and 17 of lactation, and d 5 after weaning (postweaning), and gene expression was quantified by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR. Compared with prepartum, d 5 of lactation increased (P < 0.001) NR3C1, tended to increase (P = 0.06) GHR, and decreased (P < 0.001) PRLR mRNA abundance. Compared with d 5 of lactation, d 17 of lactation increased PRLR (P < 0.001) and decreased GHR (P < 0.01). Expression of INR and FRAP1 did not differ when comparing either prepartum or d 17 of lactation with d 5 of lactation. Compared with d 17 of lactation, postweaning decreased (P < 0.001) PRLR, did not affect INSR, and increased both IGF-I and GHR (P < 0.05) mRNA abundance. From prepartum to d 17 of lactation, NR3C1 mRNA abundance was positively correlated with CSN2 (r = 0.85; P < 0.001) and LALBA mRNA abundance (r = 0.79; P = 0.002), whereas mRNA abundance of GHR tended to be positively correlated with that of IGF-I (r = 0.46; P = 0.06). In conclusion, expression of the genes NR3C1, PRLR, GHR, and IGF-I changed in the porcine mammary gland during the prepartum to postweaning periods, but only NR3C1 mRNA abundance was positively correlated with expression of CSN2 and LALBA.

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