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      Novel anti-inflammatory film as a delivery system for the external medication with bioactive phytochemical “Apocynin”

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Recently, Apocynin (APO) has emerged as a bioactive phytochemical with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. No reports have been published so far concerning its topical application as a pharmaceutical dosage form for prospective use. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to fabricate novel anti-inflammatory film for external medication with APO.

          Methods

          APO film was prepared using casein (CAS) as a natural protein film former by solvent casting technique. The medicated film was extensively evaluated in terms of its various physicochemical characteristics, ex vivo skin permeation profile, stability, and finally in vivo anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema.

          Results

          The film represented satisfactory mechanical properties along with good flexibility. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffractometry revealed possible solubility of APO in the amorphous CAS and inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the film components. The ex vivo skin permeation results of the medicated film demonstrated non-Fickian diffusion mechanism of the permeated drug. Application of APO film to rat paw before carrageenan-induced paw edema or after induction disclosed eminent anti-inflammatory activity expressed by marked decrease in paw swelling (%) and increase in edema inhibition rate (%). In addition, histopathologic examination revealed a significant decrease in inflammatory scores. The immunohistochemical expression levels of both nuclear factor kappa B and cyclooxygenase-2 were significantly suppressed.

          Conclusion

          These results indicated that CAS film could be applied as a promising external delivery system for the anti-inflammatory APO.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Mechanisms of solute release from porous hydrophilic polymers

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            The pH of the Skin Surface and Its Impact on the Barrier Function

            The ‘acid mantle’ of the stratum corneum seems to be important for both permeability barrier formation and cutaneous antimicrobial defense. However, the origin of the acidic pH, measurable on the skin surface, remains conjectural. Passive and active influencing factors have been proposed, e.g. eccrine and sebaceous secretions as well as proton pumps. In recent years, numerous investigations have been published focusing on the changes in the pH of the deeper layers of the stratum corneum, as well as on the influence of physiological and pathological factors. The pH of the skin follows a sharp gradient across the stratum corneum, which is suspected to be important in controlling enzymatic activities and skin renewal. The skin pH is affected by a great number of endogenous factors, e.g. skin moisture, sweat, sebum, anatomic site, genetic predisposition and age. In addition, exogenous factors like detergents, application of cosmetic products, occlusive dressings as well as topical antibiotics may influence the skin pH. Changes in the pH are reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of skin diseases like irritant contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, ichthyosis, acne vulgaris and Candida albicans infections. Therefore, the use of skin cleansing agents, especially synthetic detergents with a pH of about 5.5, may be of relevance in the prevention and treatment of those skin diseases.
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              Cyclooxygenases: structural and functional insights.

              Cyclooxygenase (COX; prostaglandin G/H synthase, EC 1.14.99.1) catalyzes the first two steps in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins (PGs). The two COX isoforms COX-1 and COX-2 are the targets of the widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, indicating a role for these enzymes in pain, fever, inflammation, and tumorigenesis. The ubiquitous constitutive expression of COX-1 and inducible expression of COX-2 have led to the widely held belief that COX-1 produces homeostatic PGs, while PGs produced by COX-2 are primarily pathophysiological. However, recent discoveries call this paradigm into question and reveal as yet underappreciated functions for both enzymes. This review focuses on some of these new insights.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                13 September 2018
                : 12
                : 2981-3001
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Dakahlia, Egypt, irhanabuhashim@ 123456hotmail.com
                [2 ]Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Dakahlia, Egypt
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Irhan Ibrahim Abu Hashim, Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy – Mansoura University, El-Gomhoria Street, Mansoura, Dakahlia 35516, Egypt, Tel +20 109 300 8481, Fax +20 50 224 7496, Email irhanabuhashim@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                dddt-12-2981
                10.2147/DDDT.S176850
                6143133
                © 2018 Anter et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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