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      Liquid metals: fundamentals and applications in chemistry

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          Abstract

          Post-transition elements, together with zinc-group metals and their alloys belong to an emerging class of materials with fascinating characteristics originating from their simultaneous metallic and liquid natures.

          Abstract

          Post-transition elements, together with zinc-group metals and their alloys belong to an emerging class of materials with fascinating characteristics originating from their simultaneous metallic and liquid natures. These metals and alloys are characterised by having low melting points ( i.e. between room temperature and 300 °C), making their liquid state accessible to practical applications in various fields of physical chemistry and synthesis. These materials can offer extraordinary capabilities in the synthesis of new materials, catalysis and can also enable novel applications including microfluidics, flexible electronics and drug delivery. However, surprisingly liquid metals have been somewhat neglected by the wider research community. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals underlying liquid metal research, including liquid metal synthesis, surface functionalisation and liquid metal enabled chemistry. Furthermore, we discuss phenomena that warrant further investigations in relevant fields and outline how liquid metals can contribute to exciting future applications.

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          Quantum Spin Hall Effect in Silicene

          Recent years have witnessed great interest in the quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE) which is a new quantum state of matter with nontrivial topological property due to the scientific importance as a novel quantum state and the technological applications in spintronics. Taking account of Si, Ge significant importance as semiconductor material and intense interest in the realization of QSHE for spintronics, here we investigate the spin-orbit opened energy gap and the band topology in recently synthesized silicene using first-principles calculations. We demonstrate that silicene with topologically nontrivial electronic structures can realize QSHE by exploiting adiabatic continuity and direct calculation of the Z2 topological invariant. We predict that QSHE in silicene can be observed in an experimentally accessible low temperature regime with the spin-orbit band gap of 1.55 meV, much higher than that of graphene due to large spin-orbit coupling and the low-buckled structure. Furthermore, we find that the gap will increase to 2.90 meV under certain pressure strain. Finally, we also study germanium with similar low buckled stable structure, and predict that SOC opens a band gap of 23.9 meV, much higher than the liquid nitrogen temperature.
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            Theory of the oxidation of metals

             N Cabrera,  N. F. Mott (1949)
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              Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn): A Liquid Metal Alloy for the Formation of Stable Structures in Microchannels at Room Temperature

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CSRVBR
                Chemical Society Reviews
                Chem. Soc. Rev.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                0306-0012
                1460-4744
                2018
                2018
                : 47
                : 11
                : 4073-4111
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Engineering, RMIT University
                [2 ]Melbourne
                [3 ]Australia
                [4 ]Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
                [5 ]North Carolina State University
                [6 ]Raleigh
                [7 ]USA
                Article
                10.1039/C7CS00043J
                © 2018

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