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      Milk Modulates Campylobacter Invasion into Caco-2 Intestinal Epithelial Cells

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          Abstract

          Raw milk is a recognized source of Campylobacter outbreaks, but pasteurization is an effective way to eliminate the causative agent of Campylobacteriosis. Whereas breastfeeding is protective against infectious diseases, consumption of formula milk is thought to be not. However, in relation to Campylobacter, such data is currently unavailable. Although both pasteurized and formula milk are pathogen free and prepared in a quality controlled manner, the effect they have on the virulence of Campylobacter species is unknown. Here, we studied the effect of cow, goat, horse, and formula milk on Campylobacter invasion into intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, a pathogenic feature of this bacterial species, using a gentamicin exclusion invasion assay. We found that all milk products modulated the invasion of Campylobacter species into the Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Control experiments showed that the milks were not toxic for the Caco-2 cells and that the effect on invasion is caused by heat labile (e.g., milk proteins) or heat stable (e.g., sugar/lipids) components depending on the Campylobacter species studied. This in vitro study shows for the first time that pasteurized and formula milk affect the invasion of Campylobacter. We recommend a prospective study to examine whether pasteurized and formula milk affect Campylobacteriosis.

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          Most cited references 36

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          The global burden of listeriosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

          Listeriosis, caused by Listeria monocytogenes, is an important foodborne disease that can be difficult to control and commonly results in severe clinical outcomes. We aimed to provide the first estimates of global numbers of illnesses, deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to listeriosis, by synthesising information and knowledge through a systematic review.
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            Human milk oligosaccharides are associated with protection against diarrhea in breast-fed infants.

            To determine the association between maternal milk levels of 2-linked fucosylated oligosaccharide and prevention of diarrhea as a result of Campylobacter, caliciviruses, and diarrhea of all causes in breast-fed infants. Data and banked samples were analyzed from 93 breast-feeding mother-infant pairs who were prospectively studied during 1988-1991 from birth to 2 years with infant feeding and diarrhea data collected weekly; diarrhea was diagnosed by a study physician. Milk samples obtained 1 to 5 weeks postpartum were analyzed for oligosaccharide content. Data were analyzed by Poisson regression. Total 2-linked fucosyloligosaccharide in maternal milk ranged from 0.8 to 20.8 mmol/L (50%-92% of milk oligosaccharide). Moderate-to-severe diarrhea of all causes (n=77 cases) occurred less often (P=.001) in infants whose milk contained high levels of total 2-linked fucosyloligosaccharide as a percent of milk oligosaccharide. Campylobacter diarrhea (n=31 cases) occurred less often (P=.004) in infants whose mother's milk contained high levels of 2'-FL, a specific 2-linked fucosyloligosaccharide, and calicivirus diarrhea (n=16 cases) occurred less often (P=.012) in infants whose mother's milk contained high levels of lacto-N-difucohexaose (LDFH-I), another 2-linked fucosyloligosaccharide. This study provides novel evidence suggesting that human milk oligosaccharides are clinically relevant to protection against infant diarrhea.
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              Foodborne pathogens in milk and the dairy farm environment: food safety and public health implications.

              Milk and products derived from milk of dairy cows can harbor a variety of microorganisms and can be important sources of foodborne pathogens. The presence of foodborne pathogens in milk is due to direct contact with contaminated sources in the dairy farm environment and to excretion from the udder of an infected animal. Most milk is pasteurized, so why should the dairy industry be concerned about the microbial quality of bulk tank milk? There are several valid reasons, including (1) outbreaks of disease in humans have been traced to the consumption of unpasteurized milk and have also been traced back to pasteurized milk, (2) unpasteurized milk is consumed directly by dairy producers, farm employees, and their families, neighbors, and raw milk advocates, (3) unpasteurized milk is consumed directly by a large segment of the population via consumption of several types of cheeses manufactured from unpasteurized milk, (4) entry of foodborne pathogens via contaminated raw milk into dairy food processing plants can lead to persistence of these pathogens in biofilms, and subsequent contamination of processed milk products and exposure of consumers to pathogenic bacteria, (5) pasteurization may not destroy all foodborne pathogens in milk, and (6) inadequate or faulty pasteurization will not destroy all foodborne pathogens. Furthermore, pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes can survive and thrive in post-pasteurization processing environments, thus leading to recontamination of dairy products. These pathways pose a risk to the consumer from direct exposure to foodborne pathogens present in unpasteurized dairy products as well as dairy products that become re-contaminated after pasteurization. The purpose of this communication is to review literature published on the prevalence of bacterial foodborne pathogens in milk and in the dairy environment, and to discuss public health and food safety issues associated with foodborne pathogens found in the dairy environment. Information presented supports the model in which the presence of pathogens depends on ingestion of contaminated feed followed by amplification in bovine hosts and fecal dissemination in the farm environment. The final outcome of this cycle is a constantly maintained reservoir of foodborne pathogens that can reach humans by direct contact, ingestion of raw contaminated milk or cheese, or contamination during the processing of milk products. Isolation of bacterial pathogens with similar biotypes from dairy farms and from outbreaks of human disease substantiates this hypothesis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                EUJMI
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                18 September 2015
                September 2015
                : 5
                : 3
                : 181-187
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre , Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                [2 ] Cell Biology and Immunology, Wageningen University , The Netherlands
                [3 ]FrieslandCampina , Amersfoort, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                * Erasmus MC, Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Wytemaweg 80, 3015CE, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 0031-(0)10-7037297 or 0031-(0)6-17903467; 0031-(0)10-7043875; r.louwen@ 123456erasmusmc.nl
                Article
                10.1556/1886.2015.00019
                4598885
                © 2015, The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 35, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Article

                caco-2, invasion, milk, formulated, pasteurized, campylobacter

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