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      Curcumin enhances the cytogenotoxic effect of etoposide in leukemia cells through induction of reactive oxygen species

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          Abstract

          Curcumin may exert a more selective cytotoxic effect in tumor cells with elevated levels of free radicals. Here, we investigated whether curcumin can modulate etoposide action in myeloid leukemia cells and in normal cells of hematopoietic origin. HL-60 cell line, normal myeloid progenitor cluster of differentiation (CD)-34 + cells, and granulocytes were incubated for 4 or 24 hours at different concentrations of curcumin and/or etoposide. Brown Norway rats with acute myeloid leukemia (BNML) were used to prove the influence of curcumin on etoposide action in vivo. Rats were treated with curcumin for 23 days and etoposide was administered for the final 3 days of the experiment. Curcumin synergistically potentiated the cytotoxic effect of etoposide, and it intensified apoptosis and phosphorylation of the histone H2AX induced by this cytostatic drug in leukemic HL-60 cells. In contrast, curcumin did not significantly modify etoposide-induced cytotoxicity and H2AX phosphorylation in normal CD34 + cells and granulocytes. Curcumin modified the cytotoxic action of etoposide in HL-60 cells through intensification of free radical production because preincubation with N-acetyl- l-cysteine (NAC) significantly reduced the cytotoxic effect of curcumin itself and a combination of two compounds. In contrast, NAC did not decrease the cytotoxic effect of etoposide. Thus, oxidative stress plays a greater role in the cytotoxic effect of curcumin than that of etoposide in HL-60 cells. In vitro results were confirmed in a BNML model. Pretreatment with curcumin enhanced the antileukemic activity of etoposide in BNML rats (1.57-fold tumor reduction versus etoposide alone; P<0.05) and induced apoptosis of BNML cells more efficiently than etoposide alone (1.54-fold change versus etoposide alone; P<0.05), but this treatment protected nonleukemic B-cells from apoptosis. Thus, curcumin can increase the antileukemic effect of etoposide through reactive oxygen species in sensitive myeloid leukemia cells, and it is harmless to normal human cells.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Quantitative detection of (125)IdU-induced DNA double-strand breaks with gamma-H2AX antibody.

          When mammalian cells are exposed to ionizing radiation and other agents that introduce DSBs into DNA, histone H2AX molecules in megabase chromatin regions adjacent to the breaks become phosphorylated within minutes on a specific serine residue. An antibody to this phosphoserine motif of human H2AX (gamma-H2AX) demonstrates that gamma-H2AX molecules appear in discrete nuclear foci. To establish the quantitative relationship between the number of these foci and the number of DSBs, we took advantage of the ability of (125)I, when incorporated into DNA, to generate one DNA DSB per radioactive disintegration. SF-268 and HT-1080 cell cultures were grown in the presence of (125)IdU and processed immunocytochemically to determine the number of gamma-H2AX foci. The numbers of (125)IdU disintegrations per cell were measured by exposing the same immunocytochemically processed samples to a radiation-sensitive screen with known standards. Under appropriate conditions, the data yielded a direct correlation between the number of (125)I decays and the number of foci per cell, consistent with the assumptions that each (125)I decay yields a DNA DSB and each DNA DSB yields a visible gamma-H2AX focus. Based on these findings, we conclude that gamma-H2AX antibody may form the basis of a sensitive quantitative method for the detection of DNA DSBs in eukaryotic cells.
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            Genomic instability in myeloid malignancies: increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and error-prone repair.

            Disease progression in myeloid malignancies results from the accumulation of "mutations" in genes that control cellular growth and differentiation. Many types of genetic alterations have been identified in myeloid diseases. However, the mechanism(s) by which these cells acquire genetic alterations or "Genomic instability", is less well understood. Increasing evidence suggests that the genetic changes in myeloid malignancies lead to increased production of endogenous sources of DNA damage, such as, reactive oxygen species (ROS). The fusion gene BCR-ABL in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), FLT3/ITD in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and RAS mutations in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)/myeloproliferative diseases (MPD) result in ROS production. Increased ROS can drive a cycle of genomic instability leading to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and altered repair that can lead to acquisition of genomic changes. Evidence is coming to light that defects in a main repair pathway for DSBs, non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), lead to up-regulation of alternative or "back-up" repair that can create chromosomal deletions and translocations. This article will review evidence for activation of RAS/PI3K/STAT pathways, that lead to increased ROS, DNA damage and defective repair in myeloid diseases, a mechanism for acquisition of additional mutations that can drive disease progression.
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              Coformulation of doxorubicin and curcumin in poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles suppresses the development of multidrug resistance in K562 cells.

              Doxorubicin (DOX) is a broad-spectrum anthracycline antibiotic used to treat a variety of cancers including leukemia. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) blasts like K562 cells are resistant to apoptosis induced by DOX due to several reasons, the primary being the sequestration of drug into cytoplasmic vesicles and induction of multidrug resistance (MDR) gene expression with DOX treatment resulting in intracellular resistance to this drug. Moreover, expression of antiapoptotic protein BCL-2 and the hybrid gene bcr/abl in K562 cells contributes resistance to DOX. Studies have shown that curcumin (CUR) has a pleiotropic therapeutic effect in cancer treatment, as it is an inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) as well as a potent downregulator of MDR transporters. In this study, we investigated the potential benefit of using DOX and CUR in a single nanoparticle (NP) formulation to inhibit the development of drug resistance for the enhancement of antiproliferative activity of DOX in K562 cells. Results illustrate that the dual (DOX+CUR) drug loaded NPs were effectively delivered into K562 cells. CUR not only facilitates the retention of DOX in nucleus for a longer period of time but also inhibits the gradual expression of MDR1 and BCL-2 at the mRNA level in K562 cells. Moreover, Western blot results confirm that in combination both of the drugs were capable of inducing apoptosis even if in a lower concentration compared to either single drug in both solution or in formulation. Combinational therapy by using DOX and CUR, especially when administered in the NP formulation, has enhanced the cytotoxicity in K562 cells by promoting the apoptotic response. Overall, this combinational strategy has significant promise in the clinical management of intractable diseases, especially leukemia.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2016
                04 February 2016
                : 10
                : 557-570
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Cytobiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
                [2 ]Department of Medical Diagnostic, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
                [3 ]Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
                [4 ]Department of Clinical Immunology, Institute of Pediatrics, Krakow, Poland
                [5 ]Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
                [6 ]Malopolska Centre of Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Monika A Papież, Department of Cytobiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 9 Medyczna Street, 30-688 Krakow, Poland, Tel/fax +48 12 620 5700, Email monika.papiez@ 123456uj.edu.pl
                Article
                dddt-10-557
                10.2147/DDDT.S92687
                4745860
                26893544
                © 2016 Papież et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                apoptosis, γ-h2ax, ros, etoposide, curcumin, acute myeloid leukemia

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