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      Paclitaxel balloon coating, a novel method for prevention and therapy of restenosis.


      Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary, instrumentation, methods, Animals, Coronary Restenosis, prevention & control, Coronary Stenosis, therapy, Coronary Vessels, chemistry, drug effects, pathology, Drug Evaluation, Preclinical, Paclitaxel, administration & dosage, blood, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology, therapeutic use, Stents, Sus scrofa, Tunica Intima, ultrastructure

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          Drug-eluting stents have shown promising antirestenotic effects in clinical trials. Non-stent-based local delivery of antiproliferative drugs may offer additional flexibility and also reach vessel areas beyond the immediate stent coverage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a novel method of local drug delivery based on angioplasty balloons. Stainless steel stents (n=40; diameter, 3.0 to 3.5 mm; length, 18 mm) were implanted in the left anterior descending and circumflex coronary arteries of domestic pigs. Both conventional uncoated and 3 different types of paclitaxel-coated, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty balloons (contact with vessel wall for 1 minute) were used. No difference in short-term tolerance between coated and uncoated balloons and no signs of thrombotic events were observed. Quantitative angiography and histomorphometry of the stented arteries asserted the statistical equality of the baseline parameters between the control and the 3 treatment groups. Paclitaxel balloon coating led to a marked, dose-dependent reduction of parameters characterizing in-stent restenosis (reduction of neointimal area up to 63%). Despite the marked reduction in neointimal proliferation, endothelialization of stent struts was present in all samples. There was no evidence of a significant inflammatory response in the neighborhood of the stent struts. Paclitaxel balloon coating is safe, and it effectively inhibits restenosis after coronary angioplasty with stent implantation in the porcine model. The degree of reduction in neointimal formation was comparable to that achieved with drug-eluting stents.

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