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      Generation of a Recombinant Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Expressing the Rat Corticotropin- Releasing Hormone Precursor: Endoproteolytic Processing, Intracellular Targeting and Biological Activity

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          We describe the generation of a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) vector, tsK/CRH10, derived from the temperature-sensitive mutant tsK, expressing rat pre-procorticotropin-releasing hormone (ppCRH). In hypothalamic neurons, within the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, this neuropeptide precursor is processed to mature CRH (1–41), the key modulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress response. We used the recombinant HSV1 tsK/CRH10 to study posttranslational processing, intracellular localization and biological activity of proCRH (pCRH) within neuronal, glial and epithelial cell lines. We showed that CRH-like immunoreactivity expressed in neuronal, glial and epithelial cells infected with tsK/CRH10 was biologically active, could be detected intracellularly and was also secreted. Our data also show that within Neuro2a and NG115 cells, the CRH precursor is cleaved to yield a CRH-like immunoreactive fragment of approximately 4.75 kD which could account for mature CRH (1–41). No endoproteolytic processing of the precursor takes place within the astrocytic 1321 NI cell line. Using immunocytochemistry techniques we detected CRH-like immunoreactivity within the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi region in all cells and within secretory vesicles of Neuro2a and NG115 cells, suggesting correct targeting to the regulated secretory pathway within these cells. Our results demonstrate that the HSV1 recombinant vector expressing the full-length CRH precursor molecule constitutes an excellent delivery system for both cell lines and postmitotic neurons in vitro, which has enabled the study of targeting, endoproteolytic processing and biological activity of this neuropeptide precursor. Furthermore, it can also be used to generate transient transgenesis of the CRH precursor in vivo, to study neuroendocrine-immune interactions within the mammalian central nervous system.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection stimulates p38/c-Jun N-terminal mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and activates transcription factor AP-1.

          Cells respond to environmental stress and proinflammatory cytokines by stimulating the Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. Infection of eukaryotic cells with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) resulted in stimulation of both JNK/SAPK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase after 3 h of infection, and activation reached a maximum of 4-fold by 9 h post-infection. By using a series of mutant viruses, we showed that the virion transactivator protein VP16 stimulates p38/JNK, whereas no immediate-early, early, or late viral expressed gene is involved. We identified the stress-activated protein kinase kinase 1 as an upstream activator of p38/JNK, and we demonstrated that activation of AP-1 binding proceeded p38/JNK stimulation. During infection, the activated AP-1 consisted mainly of JunB and JunD with a simultaneous decrease in the cellular levels of Jun protein. We suggest that activation of the stress pathways by HSV-1 infection either represents a cascade triggered by the virus to facilitate the lytic cycle or a defense mechanism of the host cell against virus invasion.
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            The family of subtilisin/kexin like pro-protein and pro-hormone convertases: Divergent or shared functions

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              Heterologous biosynthesis and processing of preprovasopressin in Neuro2A neuroblastoma cells


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                December 1999
                24 December 1999
                : 70
                : 6
                : 439-450
                aMolecular Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester, bMRC Virology Unit, University of Glasgow, and cDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK
                54506 Neuroendocrinology 1999;70:439–450
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 30, Pages: 12
                Corticotropin and Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone


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