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      Generation of a Recombinant Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Expressing the Rat Corticotropin- Releasing Hormone Precursor: Endoproteolytic Processing, Intracellular Targeting and Biological Activity

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          Abstract

          We describe the generation of a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) vector, tsK/CRH10, derived from the temperature-sensitive mutant tsK, expressing rat pre-procorticotropin-releasing hormone (ppCRH). In hypothalamic neurons, within the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, this neuropeptide precursor is processed to mature CRH (1–41), the key modulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress response. We used the recombinant HSV1 tsK/CRH10 to study posttranslational processing, intracellular localization and biological activity of proCRH (pCRH) within neuronal, glial and epithelial cell lines. We showed that CRH-like immunoreactivity expressed in neuronal, glial and epithelial cells infected with tsK/CRH10 was biologically active, could be detected intracellularly and was also secreted. Our data also show that within Neuro2a and NG115 cells, the CRH precursor is cleaved to yield a CRH-like immunoreactive fragment of approximately 4.75 kD which could account for mature CRH (1–41). No endoproteolytic processing of the precursor takes place within the astrocytic 1321 NI cell line. Using immunocytochemistry techniques we detected CRH-like immunoreactivity within the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi region in all cells and within secretory vesicles of Neuro2a and NG115 cells, suggesting correct targeting to the regulated secretory pathway within these cells. Our results demonstrate that the HSV1 recombinant vector expressing the full-length CRH precursor molecule constitutes an excellent delivery system for both cell lines and postmitotic neurons in vitro, which has enabled the study of targeting, endoproteolytic processing and biological activity of this neuropeptide precursor. Furthermore, it can also be used to generate transient transgenesis of the CRH precursor in vivo, to study neuroendocrine-immune interactions within the mammalian central nervous system.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection stimulates p38/c-Jun N-terminal mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and activates transcription factor AP-1.

          Cells respond to environmental stress and proinflammatory cytokines by stimulating the Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. Infection of eukaryotic cells with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) resulted in stimulation of both JNK/SAPK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase after 3 h of infection, and activation reached a maximum of 4-fold by 9 h post-infection. By using a series of mutant viruses, we showed that the virion transactivator protein VP16 stimulates p38/JNK, whereas no immediate-early, early, or late viral expressed gene is involved. We identified the stress-activated protein kinase kinase 1 as an upstream activator of p38/JNK, and we demonstrated that activation of AP-1 binding proceeded p38/JNK stimulation. During infection, the activated AP-1 consisted mainly of JunB and JunD with a simultaneous decrease in the cellular levels of Jun protein. We suggest that activation of the stress pathways by HSV-1 infection either represents a cascade triggered by the virus to facilitate the lytic cycle or a defense mechanism of the host cell against virus invasion.
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            The family of subtilisin/kexin like pro-protein and pro-hormone convertases: Divergent or shared functions

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              Heterologous biosynthesis and processing of preprovasopressin in Neuro2A neuroblastoma cells

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                1999
                December 1999
                24 December 1999
                : 70
                : 6
                : 439-450
                Affiliations
                aMolecular Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester, bMRC Virology Unit, University of Glasgow, and cDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, UK
                Article
                54506 Neuroendocrinology 1999;70:439–450
                10.1159/000054506
                10657737
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 30, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Corticotropin and Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone

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