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Neuroscience of drug craving for addiction medicine: From circuits to therapies.

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      Abstract

      Drug craving is a dynamic neurocognitive emotional-motivational response to a wide range of cues, from internal to external environments and from drug-related to stressful or affective events. The subjective feeling of craving, as an appetitive or compulsive state, could be considered a part of this multidimensional process, with modules in different levels of consciousness and embodiment. The neural correspondence of this dynamic and complex phenomenon may be productively investigated in relation to regional, small-scale networks, large-scale networks, and brain states. Within cognitive neuroscience, this approach has provided a long list of neural and cognitive targets for craving modulations with different cognitive, electrical, or pharmacological interventions. There are new opportunities to integrate different approaches for carving management from environmental, behavioral, psychosocial, cognitive, and neural perspectives. By using cognitive neuroscience models that treat drug craving as a dynamic and multidimensional process, these approaches may yield more effective interventions for addiction medicine.

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      Affiliations
      [1 ] Neurocognitive Laboratory, Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Translational Neuroscience Program, Institute for Cognitive Science Studies (ICSS), Tehran, Iran; Research Center for Molecular and Cellular Imaging (RCMCI), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: h_ekhtiari@razi.tums.ac.ir.
      [2 ] Neurocognitive Laboratory, Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Translational Neuroscience Program, Institute for Cognitive Science Studies (ICSS), Tehran, Iran.
      [3 ] Neurocognitive Laboratory, Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
      [4 ] Clinical Department, Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
      [5 ] Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Brain and Creativity Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
      Journal
      Prog. Brain Res.
      Progress in brain research
      Elsevier BV
      1875-7855
      0079-6123
      2016
      : 223
      26806774 S0079-6123(15)00190-9 10.1016/bs.pbr.2015.10.002

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