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      Nm23-H1 is involved in the repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in the A549 lung cancer cell line

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          Abstract

          Background

          Although originally identified as a putative metastasis suppressor, increasing studies have confirmed a possible role for Nm23-H1 in DNA repair, through the base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair pathways. In this study, we explored whether Nm23-H1 was also involved in double-strand break repair (DSBR).

          Methods and results

          We constructed a stable A549-shNm23-H1 cell line with doxycycline-regulated expression of Nm23-H1, and a A549-nNm23-H1 cell line that over expressed a nucleus-localized version of Nm23-H1. Results from both lines confirmed that Nm23-H1 participated in the repair of double-strand breaks induced by X-rays, using Comet and γ-H2AX foci assays. Subsequent studies showed that Nm23-H1 activated the phosphorylation of checkpoint-related proteins including ATM serine/threonine kinase (on S1981), tumor protein p53 (on S15), and checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) (on T68). We also detected interactions between Nm23-H1 and the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex, as well as Ku80. Moreover, NBS1 and Ku80 levels were comparably higher in Nm23-H1 overexpressing cells than in control cells ( t = 14.462, p < 0.001 and t = 5.347, p = 0.006, respectively). As Ku80 is the keystone of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway, we speculate that Nm23-H1 promotes DSBR through NHEJ.

          Conclusions

          The results indicate that Nm23-H1 participates in multiple steps of DSBR.

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          Most cited references27

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          Regulation of DNA repair throughout the cell cycle.

          The repair of DNA lesions that occur endogenously or in response to diverse genotoxic stresses is indispensable for genome integrity. DNA lesions activate checkpoint pathways that regulate specific DNA-repair mechanisms in the different phases of the cell cycle. Checkpoint-arrested cells resume cell-cycle progression once damage has been repaired, whereas cells with unrepairable DNA lesions undergo permanent cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis. Recent studies have provided insights into the mechanisms that contribute to DNA repair in specific cell-cycle phases and have highlighted the mechanisms that ensure cell-cycle progression or arrest in normal and cancerous cells.
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            Pathways of DNA double-strand break repair during the mammalian cell cycle.

            Little is known about the quantitative contributions of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) to DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in different cell cycle phases after physiologically relevant doses of ionizing radiation. Using immunofluorescence detection of gamma-H2AX nuclear foci as a novel approach for monitoring the repair of DSBs, we show here that NHEJ-defective hamster cells (CHO mutant V3 cells) have strongly reduced repair in all cell cycle phases after 1 Gy of irradiation. In contrast, HR-defective CHO irs1SF cells have a minor repair defect in G(1), greater impairment in S, and a substantial defect in late S/G(2). Furthermore, the radiosensitivity of irs1SF cells is slight in G(1) but dramatically higher in late S/G(2), while V3 cells show high sensitivity throughout the cell cycle. These findings show that NHEJ is important in all cell cycle phases, while HR is particularly important in late S/G(2), where both pathways contribute to repair and radioresistance. In contrast to DSBs produced by ionizing radiation, DSBs produced by the replication inhibitor aphidicolin are repaired entirely by HR. irs1SF, but not V3, cells show hypersensitivity to aphidicolin treatment. These data provide the first evaluation of the cell cycle-specific contributions of NHEJ and HR to the repair of radiation-induced versus replication-associated DSBs.
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              Repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks by non-homologous end-joining.

              DNA DSBs (double-strand breaks) are considered the most cytotoxic type of DNA lesion. They can be introduced by external sources such as IR (ionizing radiation), by chemotherapeutic drugs such as topoisomerase poisons and by normal biological processes such as V(D)J recombination. If left unrepaired, DSBs can cause cell death. If misrepaired, DSBs may lead to chromosomal translocations and genomic instability. One of the major pathways for the repair of IR-induced DSBs in mammalian cells is NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining). The main proteins required for NHEJ in mammalian cells are the Ku heterodimer (Ku70/80 heterodimer), DNA-PKcs [the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK (DNA-dependent protein kinase)], Artemis, XRCC4 (X-ray-complementing Chinese hamster gene 4), DNA ligase IV and XLF (XRCC4-like factor; also called Cernunnos). Additional proteins, including DNA polymerases mu and lambda, PNK (polynucleotide kinase) and WRN (Werner's Syndrome helicase), may also play a role. In the present review, we will discuss our current understanding of the mechanism of NHEJ in mammalian cells and discuss the roles of DNA-PKcs and DNA-PK-mediated phosphorylation in NHEJ.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                849443350@qq.com
                84216522@qq.com
                2027479711@qq.com
                13319650@qq.com
                yangyicq@outlook.com
                xunjie0624@foxmail.com
                dongwang64@hotmail.com
                +86-23-68757168 , yangxueqin@hotmail.com
                Journal
                BMC Cancer
                BMC Cancer
                BMC Cancer
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2407
                3 July 2018
                3 July 2018
                2018
                : 18
                : 710
                Affiliations
                Cancer Center, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Army Military Medical University, No.10 Changjiang Zhi lu, Daping Yuzhong District, Chongqing, 400042 China
                Article
                4592
                10.1186/s12885-018-4592-2
                6029351
                29970055
                41a72df5-73e9-4778-b7f3-bdba851f36b2
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 18 December 2017
                : 13 June 2018
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 81272599
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                nm23-h1,double-strand break repair,lung cancer
                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                nm23-h1, double-strand break repair, lung cancer

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