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      Color Doppler Ultrasound in Renal Transplant: Role of Resistive Index versus Renal Cortical Ratio in the Evaluation of Renal Transplant Diseases

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          Background/Aims: Ultrasound (US) and color Doppler are not sensitive enough to detect anomalies in cortical perfusion, which is affected in most graft dysfunctions. The renal cortical ratio (RCR) is a variation in the resistive index (RI) values from the renal artery to cortical vessels, expressed in percent. The aim of this study was to compare the RI and RCR in the differentiation of normal and pathological grafts, to assess the positive predictive value of RCR and show that RCR enables earlier diagnosis than RI. Methods: Based on clinical, biochemical and histological examinations, 494 renal allografts were divided into 3 groups (normal grafts, acute and chronic pathologies). All patients underwent US color Doppler. RI was measured and RCR calculated. Follow-up confirmed the initial division in groups. Statistical significance was calculated using the two-tailed Student’s t test. The positive predictive value was calculated for each group. Results: 24 h after transplant, RCR differentiated normal grafts from acute dysfunctions despite confusing biochemical values and clinical symptoms. In chronic patients, RCR variations occurred later but always before the serum creatinine level increased. Conclusion: RCR presented a higher positive predictive value than RI. RCR curves were already altered in the early stages of transplant pathologies. RCR calculation is easy and makes a significant contribution towards a correct early diagnosis.

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          The Banff 97 working classification of renal allograft pathology.

          Standardization of renal allograft biopsy interpretation is necessary to guide therapy and to establish an objective end point for clinical trials. This manuscript describes a classification, Banff 97, developed by investigators using the Banff Schema and the Collaborative Clinical Trials in Transplantation (CCTT) modification for diagnosis of renal allograft pathology. Banff 97 grew from an international consensus discussion begun at Banff and continued via the Internet. This schema developed from (a) analysis of data using the Banff classification, (b) publication of and experience with the CCTT modification, (c) international conferences, and (d) data from recent studies on impact of vasculitis on transplant outcome. Semiquantitative lesion scoring continues to focus on tubulitis and arteritis but includes a minimum threshold for interstitial inflammation. Banff 97 defines "types" of acute/active rejection. Type I is tubulointerstitial rejection without arteritis. Type II is vascular rejection with intimal arteritis, and type III is severe rejection with transmural arterial changes. Biopsies with only mild inflammation are graded as "borderline/suspicious for rejection." Chronic/sclerosing allograft changes are graded based on severity of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Antibody-mediated rejection, hyperacute or accelerated acute in presentation, is also categorized, as are other significant allograft findings. The Banff 97 working classification refines earlier schemas and represents input from two classifications most widely used in clinical rejection trials and in clinical practice worldwide. Major changes include the following: rejection with vasculitis is separated from tubulointerstitial rejection; severe rejection requires transmural changes in arteries; "borderline" rejection can only be interpreted in a clinical context; antibody-mediated rejection is further defined, and lesion scoring focuses on most severely involved structures. Criteria for specimen adequacy have also been modified. Banff 97 represents a significant refinement of allograft assessment, developed via international consensus discussions.
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            International standardization of criteria for the histologic diagnosis of renal allograft rejection: The Banff working classification of kidney transplant pathology

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              Ultrasound of renal transplantation.

              The most effective primary treatment of chronic renal failure is renal transplantation. A significant improvement in lifestyle and family life in conjunction with it being an extremely cost-effective procedure has resulted in an intense monitoring and imaging programme to help ensure a successful outcome. Ultrasound, both grey-scale and colour-flow Doppler, are useful monitoring techniques when interpreted in the clinical context, and in the delineation of peri-transplant collections, some of which can be drained under ultrasound guidance. After the early post-operative period it can also be utilized in the diagnosis of chronic vascular complications including transplant artery stenosis and arteriovenous fistula, although it is of limited use in the diagnosis of chronic rejection. This article will discuss the role of ultrasound in all its guises and how its efficacy in both the early transplant period in the monitoring of graft dysfunction and in the detection of the more chronic conditions including transplant artery stenosis and arteriovenous fistulae. A more limited role for ultrasound also exists in the long-term follow-up of patients and to aid the detection of complications including susceptibility to malignancy.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                November 2004
                17 November 2004
                : 98
                : 3
                : c67-c72
                Departments of aRadiology, bTransplant Surgery, and cMedical Physics, Experimental Medicine and Pathology, University ‘La Sapienza’, Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, Italy
                80675 Nephron Clin Pract 2004;98:c67–c72
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 1, Tables: 5, References: 21, Pages: 1
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