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      Haemophilus influenzae and smoking-related obstructive airways disease

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          Abstract

          Background

          Intralumenal bacteria play a critical role in the pathogenesis of acute infective episodes and airway inflammation. Antigens from colonizing bacteria such as nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) may contribute to chronic lung disease through an immediate hypersensitivity response. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of specific NTHi-IgE antibodies in subjects with chronic bronchitis (CB) and COPD who had smoked.

          Methods

          Serum, sputum, and saliva samples were collected from subjects with CB and moderate–severe COPD and healthy aged-matched controls. Total IgE and specific NTHi IgE were measured by enzyme linked immmunosorbent assay. Throat swabs were examined for the presence of NTHi.

          Results

          The results demonstrate that: i) specific NTHi IgE antibodies occur at a low level in healthy subjects; ii) those with both CB and moderate–severe COPD have elevated specific NTHi IgE antibody compared with healthy controls, with higher levels in those with most severe disease; iii) IgE levels are greater in those with moderate–severe COPD than in those with CB. They demonstrate specific NTHi IgE antibody is regularly found at higher than normal levels in COPD.

          Conclusion

          The detection of IgE antibody to colonizing bacteria in all subjects with CB or moderate–severe COPD identifies a possible mechanism of bronchospasm in these subjects amenable to specific intervention therapy.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Increased IgE-antibodies to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins in patients with COPD.

          Recent evidence suggests that Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins (SAEs) could modify airway disease by acting as superantigens, an immune response that can be monitored by detection of IgE antibodies to SAEs. We studied the expression of total IgE and specific IgE to SAEs using the Uni-CAP system in healthy controls, smokers without COPD and COPD patients. Only 1/10 controls (10%) and 1/16 smokers (6.3%) had IgE to SAEs compared to 7/18 patients with stable COPD (38.9%) and 21/54 patients with exacerbated COPD (38.9%). The IgE levels to SAEs of the patients with stable COPD (0.18 [0.05-26.2]kUA/l) and the patients with exacerbated COPD (0.09 [0.05-18.6]kUA/l) were significantly higher than those of smokers (n = 16; 0.05 [0.05-0.82]kUA/l) and controls (n = 11; 0.05 [0.05 0.9]kUA/l, P<0.05). IgE to SAEs decreased significantly in the exacerbated patients during hospitalization (0.13 [0.05-18.3] vs. 0.05 [0.05-11]kUA/l, P<0.001) going along with a significant increase in FEV1 (38.1 [16.9-79.5] vs. 51.6 [15-80]%predicted, P<0.001). Similarly to severe asthma, we found significantly elevated IgE to SAE in COPD patients. Our data for the first time suggest differences between healthy subjects, smokers and patients with established COPD regarding the role of bacterial products and point to a possible disease modifying role of SAEs.
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            Reduction in the incidence of acute bronchitis by an oral Haemophilus influenzae vaccine in patients with chronic bronchitis in the highlands of Papua New Guinea.

            Following the administration of a standardized questionnaire, 62 adult patients with chronic bronchitis were enrolled into a double-blind controlled trial of an oral killed Haemophilus influenzae vaccine in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. A 3-day course of vaccine or placebo was given monthly for 3 consecutive months. Participants were monitored weekly over 12 months for acute exacerbations; early morning sputum specimens were collected monthly and during acute exacerbations. Density of colonization by H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae was determined by standard quantitative and semiquantitative techniques, and the latter method (quadrant score) was used to determine the density of growth of pneumococci. A total of 30 patients received vaccine and 32 placebo. The incidence rate of acute bronchitis in the vaccine group (0.011 episodes/person-weeks) was significantly lower than that in the placebo group (0.021 episodes/person-weeks), but there was no difference between the two groups in the incidence rates of more severe disease. Vaccine efficacy was maximal at times of peak incidence of disease. There was no evidence of a decline in vaccine efficacy for acute bronchitis over the 12-month follow-up period. The number of viable H. influenzae in the sputum declined in both vaccine and placebo groups over the 12-month follow-up period. The average concentration of H. influenzae in the vaccine group fell below that in the placebo group within 1 to 2 months after first immunization and remained so for 12 months, although the difference between the two groups narrowed during the follow-up period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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              A possible role for lysozyme in determining acute exacerbation in chronic bronchitis.

              The aggregation of non-serotypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) by whole saliva from patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) was investigated. Significant differences were observed between salivary aggregating activity of a control and COLD population (P < 0.001). Saliva from patients less prone to acute exacerbations had a greater capacity to aggregate bacteria compared with saliva from patients with a predilection to infection. The mechanism of saliva-mediated aggregation of NTHI was investigated and shown to be related to lysozyme content. Lysozyme activity in saliva was measured by the turbidimetric technique and results showed that patients with chronic bronchitis had increased levels of salivary lysozyme, with a subpopulation within the non-infection-prone group having greater amounts. A significant difference was observed in salivary lysozyme between controls and non-infection-prone (P < 0.005) and infection-prone (P < 0.05) patients, respectively: the non-infection-prone patients having significantly (P < 0.005) more than the infection-prone patients. There was significant correlation (r = 0.742, P < 0.001) between salivary aggregation of NTHI and lysozyme activity. Chromatographically purified human lysozyme had a similar aggregation profile to that of saliva. There was no difference in serum and saliva lactoferrin concentrations between groups, but there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum lysozyme concentration in the non-infection-prone group. This study suggests that the level of salivary lysozyme derived from macrophages may play an important role in determining resistance or susceptibility to acute bronchitis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2011
                2011
                16 June 2011
                : 6
                : 345-351
                Affiliations
                [1 ] School of Medicine, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith Health, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
                [2 ] Immunology Unit, Hunter Area Pathology Service and University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Allan W Cripps, School of Medicine, Griffith Health, Institute, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Queensland, 4222, Australia, Tel +61 (0)7 56780711, Fax +61 (0)7 56780795, Email allan.cripps@ 123456griffith.edu.au
                Article
                copd-6-345
                10.2147/COPD.S19359
                3133506
                21760721
                © 2011 Otczyk et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Original Research

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