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      Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain

      review-article

      1 , *

      International Journal of Obesity (2005)

      Nature Publishing Group

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          Abstract

          Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an ‘obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their efforts to achieve and maintain weight loss.

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          Most cited references 74

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          Changes in energy expenditure resulting from altered body weight.

          No current treatment for obesity reliably sustains weight loss, perhaps because compensatory metabolic processes resist the maintenance of the altered body weight. We examined the effects of experimental perturbations of body weight on energy expenditure to determine whether they lead to metabolic changes and whether obese subjects and those who have never been obese respond similarly. We repeatedly measured 24-hour total energy expenditure, resting and nonresting energy expenditure, and the thermic effect of feeding in 18 obese subjects and 23 subjects who had never been obese. The subjects were studied at their usual body weight and after losing 10 to 20 percent of their body weight by underfeeding or gaining 10 percent by overfeeding. Maintenance of a body weight at a level 10 percent or more below the initial weight was associated with a mean (+/- SD) reduction in total energy expenditure of 6 +/- 3 kcal per kilogram of fat-free mass per day in the subjects who had never been obese (P < 0.001) and 8 +/- 5 kcal per kilogram per day in the obese subjects (P < 0.001). Resting energy expenditure and nonresting energy expenditure each decreased 3 to 4 kcal per kilogram of fat-free mass per day in both groups of subjects. Maintenance of body weight at a level 10 percent above the usual weight was associated with an increase in total energy expenditure of 9 +/- 7 kcal per kilogram of fat-free mass per day in the subjects who had never been obese (P < 0.001) and 8 +/- 4 kcal per kilogram per day in the obese subjects (P < 0.001). The thermic effect of feeding and nonresting energy expenditure increased by approximately 1 to 2 and 8 to 9 kcal per kilogram of fat-free mass per day, respectively, after weight gain. These changes in energy expenditure were not related to the degree of adiposity or the sex of the subjects. Maintenance of a reduced or elevated body weight is associated with compensatory changes in energy expenditure, which oppose the maintenance of a body weight that is different from the usual weight. These compensatory changes may account for the poor long-term efficacy of treatments for obesity.
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            MyD88 signaling in the CNS is required for development of fatty acid-induced leptin resistance and diet-induced obesity.

            Obesity-associated activation of inflammatory pathways represents a key step in the development of insulin resistance in peripheral organs, partially via activation of TLR4 signaling by fatty acids. Here, we demonstrate that palmitate acting in the central nervous system (CNS) inhibits leptin-induced anorexia and Stat3 activation. To determine the functional significance of TLR signaling in the CNS in the development of leptin resistance and diet-induced obesity in vivo, we have characterized mice deficient for the TLR adaptor molecule MyD88 in the CNS (MyD88(DeltaCNS)). Compared to control mice, MyD88(DeltaCNS) mice are protected from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain, from the development of HFD-induced leptin resistance, and from the induction of leptin resistance by acute central application of palmitate. Moreover, CNS-restricted MyD88 deletion protects from HFD- and icv palmitate-induced impairment of peripheral glucose metabolism. Thus, we define neuronal MyD88-dependent signaling as a key regulator of diet-induced leptin and insulin resistance in vivo.
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              Gut hormones as mediators of appetite and weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

              To evaluate the physiologic importance of the satiety gut hormones. Controversy surrounds the physiologic role of gut hormones in the control of appetite. Bariatric surgery remains the most effective treatment option for obesity, and gut hormones are implicated in the reduction of appetite and weight after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. We correlated peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) changes within the first week after gastric bypass with changes in appetite. We also evaluated the gut hormone responses of patients with good or poor weight loss after gastric bypass. Finally, we inhibited the gut hormone responses in gastric bypass patients and then evaluated appetite and food intake. Postprandial PYY and GLP-1 profiles start rising as early as 2 days after gastric bypass (P < 0.05). Changes in appetite are evident within days after gastric bypass surgery (P < 0.05), and unlike other operations, the reduced appetite continues. However, in patients with poor weight loss after gastric bypass associated with increased appetite, the postprandial PYY and GLP-1 responses are attenuated compared with patients with good weight loss (P < 0.05). Inhibiting gut hormone responses, including PYY and GLP-1 after gastric bypass, results in return of appetite and increased food intake (P < 0.05). The attenuated appetite after gastric bypass is associated with elevated PYY and GLP-1 concentrations, and appetite returns when the release of gut hormones is inhibited. The results suggest a role for gut hormones in the mechanism of weight loss after gastric bypass and may have implications for the treatment of obesity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Obes (Lond)
                Int J Obes (Lond)
                International Journal of Obesity (2005)
                Nature Publishing Group
                0307-0565
                1476-5497
                August 2015
                21 April 2015
                26 May 2015
                : 39
                : 8
                : 1188-1196
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System , Baton Rouge, LA, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System , 6400 Perkins Road, Baton Rouge 70808, LA, USA. E-mail: Frank.Greenway@ 123456pbrc.edu
                Article
                ijo201559
                10.1038/ijo.2015.59
                4766925
                25896063
                41b66fdf-26c9-46bd-b8e1-9796d4148355
                Copyright © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                Review

                Nutrition & Dietetics

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