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      The role of interleukins in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

      Nature reviews. Endocrinology

      physiology, Signal Transduction, metabolism, Interleukins, Insulin Resistance, Humans, pathology, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Animals

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          Abstract

          In the past few years, several interleukins (ILs) attracted considerable attention as potential effectors in the pathology and physiology of insulin resistance associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. IL-1, a major proinflammatory cytokine, is present at increased levels in patients with diabetes mellitus, and could promote beta-cell destruction and alter insulin sensitivity. The effects of IL-1 are likely to be counteracted by IL-1 receptor antagonist protein (IL-1ra), as suggested by interventional studies in patients with T2DM who were treated with a recombinant form of this protein. However, studies in IL-1ra-deficient mice provided controversial results on the exact effect of the IL-1 signaling pathway on insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and accumulation of adipose tissue. Likewise, IL-6 has been suggested to be involved in the development of obesity-related and T2DM-related insulin resistance. The action of IL-6 on glucose homeostasis is also complex and integrates central and peripheral mechanisms. Both experimental and clinical studies now converge to show that several ILs contribute to the pathology and physiology of T2DM through their interaction with insulin signaling pathways and beta-cell function.

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          Inflammation and metabolic disorders.

          Metabolic and immune systems are among the most fundamental requirements for survival. Many metabolic and immune response pathways or nutrient- and pathogen-sensing systems have been evolutionarily conserved throughout species. As a result, immune response and metabolic regulation are highly integrated and the proper function of each is dependent on the other. This interface can be viewed as a central homeostatic mechanism, dysfunction of which can lead to a cluster of chronic metabolic disorders, particularly obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Collectively, these diseases constitute the greatest current threat to global human health and welfare.
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            Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic.

            Changes in human behaviour and lifestyle over the last century have resulted in a dramatic increase in the incidence of diabetes worldwide. The epidemic is chiefly of type 2 diabetes and also the associated conditions known as 'diabesity' and 'metabolic syndrome'. In conjunction with genetic susceptibility, particularly in certain ethnic groups, type 2 diabetes is brought on by environmental and behavioural factors such as a sedentary lifestyle, overly rich nutrition and obesity. The prevention of diabetes and control of its micro- and macrovascular complications will require an integrated, international approach if we are to see significant reduction in the huge premature morbidity and mortality it causes.
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              Inflammation, stress, and diabetes.

              Over the last decade, an abundance of evidence has emerged demonstrating a close link between metabolism and immunity. It is now clear that obesity is associated with a state of chronic low-level inflammation. In this article, we discuss the molecular and cellular underpinnings of obesity-induced inflammation and the signaling pathways at the intersection of metabolism and inflammation that contribute to diabetes. We also consider mechanisms through which the inflammatory response may be initiated and discuss the reasons for the inflammatory response in obesity. We put forth for consideration some hypotheses regarding important unanswered questions in the field and suggest a model for the integration of inflammatory and metabolic pathways in metabolic disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                19399017
                10.1038/nrendo.2009.62

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