Background: The incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in hemodialysis (HD) and renal transplant (RT) patients in developing countries is high. With the resurgence of tuberculosis in the US, insights gained in the diagnosis and treatment of this infection in HD and RT patients in developing countries should be valuable to physicians in the West. Methods: A retrospective study of 40 cases of tuberculosis, 24 in HD patients (24/177, 13.6%) and 16 in RT patients (16/109, 14.7%) diagnosed over a period of 21 months in one center. Results: The clinical features, diagnostic procedures, and management dilemmas of this group of patients are described in this report. Diabetes mellitus was the most common associated disease in both groups of patients. Fever, the most common presenting sign, was persistent low grade in 66.6% of HD patients and high intermittent in 56.2% of RT patients. Fever of unknown origin was only seen in RT patients. Pulmonary involvement was most common in both groups, presenting either as infiltrates or effusions. Tuberculous peritonitis was seen only in HD patients (33.3%). Eight HD patients were treated for tuberculosis for variable periods prior to transplantation, 4 of whom had less than 6 months of therapy. None had a recurrence of tuberculosis after transplantation. Because of the known cyclosporin-lowering effect of rifampicin resulting in an increased cost of immunosuppressive therapy, 13 patients were treated successfully with rifampicin-sparing therapy. Conclusion: Tuberculosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever in HD and RT patients, especially if fever is of unknown origin in the RT patient. M. tuberculosis in the renal transplant patient can present with high intermittent fever. Partial treatment of tuberculosis is sufficient prior to renal transplantation but treatment should be continued to completion after transplantation. If the cost of immunosuppressive therapy is prohibitive because of rifampicin, rifampicin-sparing antituberculosis therapy can be successfully employed in RT patients.