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Bioremediation of palm industry wastes using vermicomposting technology: its environmental application as green fertilizer

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      Several technologies are being applied for treatment of palm oil mill wastes. Among them, the biological treatments (vermicomposting) have widely been recognized as one of the most efficient and eco-friendly methods for converting organic waste materials into valuable products. The present study focuses on vermicomposting of acidic palm oil mill effluent (POME) mixed with the palm pressed fibre (PPF) which are found difficult to decompose in the environment. The industrial waste (POME) was vermicomposted using Lumbricus rubellus under laboratory conditions for a period of 45 days. A significant improvement in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium content was monitored during vermicomposting process. In addition, the decline in C:N ratio of vermicompost (up to 17.20 ± 0.60) reflects the degree of stabilization of POME–PPF mixture. Different percentages of the vermicompost extract obtained from POME–PPF mixture were also examined for the germination of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seed. The results showed that 75% vermicompost extract demonstrated better performance for the seed germination. On the basis of significant findings, POME–PPF mixture can be successfully used as a feeding material for the earthworms, while on the other hand, it can also be used as a cost-effective fertilizer for the germination and the proper growth of mung bean.

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      Bulk chemical characteristics of dissolved organic matter in the ocean.

      Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the largest reservoir of reduced carbon in the oceans. The nature of DOM is poorly understood, in part, because it has been difficult to isolate sufficient amounts of representative material for analysis. Tangential-flow ultrafiltration was shown to recover milligram amounts of >1000 daltons of DOM from seawater collected at three depths in the North Pacific Ocean. These isolates represented 22 to 33 percent of the total DOM and included essentially all colloidal material. The elemental, carbohydrate, and carbon-type (by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance) compositions of the isolates indicated that the relative abundance of polysaccharides was high ( approximately 50 percent) in surface water and decreased to approximately 25 percent in deeper samples. Polysaccharides thus appear to be more abundant and reactive components of seawater DOM than has been recognized.
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        Vermicomposting of different types of waste using Eisenia foetida: a comparative study.

        A study (100 days duration) was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of an exotic earthworm species (epigeic-Eisenia foetida) for decomposition of different types of organic substrates (kitchen waste, agro-residues, institutional and industrial wastes including textile industry sludge and fibres) into valuable vermicompost. The percentage of, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in vermicompost was found to increase while pH and total organic carbon declined as a function of the vermicomposting period. 4.4-5.8-fold increases in TKN was observed in different feed mixtures at the end of vermicomposting period. The increase in TKN for different feed substrates was found in the order: textile sludge>textile fibre=institutional waste>agro-residues>kitchen waste. Available Phosphorus increased 1.4 to 6.5-fold in different feed mixtures in comparison to control. Reduction in TOC was highest in agro-residues (3-fold) followed by kitchen waste (2.2-fold), institutional waste (1.7-fold) and textile industrial wastes (sludge, 1.5-fold and fibre, 1.68-fold) in earthworm-inoculated pots than control. The data reveals that vermicomposting (using E. foetida) is a suitable technology for the decomposition of different types of organic wastes (domestic as well as industrial) into value-added material.
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            Author and article information

            [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2294 3534, GRID grid.11875.3a, School of Industrial Technology, , University Sains Malaysia, ; 11800 Penang, Malaysia
            [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0558 8755, GRID grid.417967.a, Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, , Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, ; New Delhi, 110016 India
            [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2296 1505, GRID grid.410877.d, Palm Oil Research Centre, , Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, ; 54100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
            [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2296 1505, GRID grid.410877.d, Faculty of Management, , Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, ; 81310 Johor Bharu, Malaysia
            3 Biotech
            3 Biotech
            3 Biotech
            Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
            16 June 2017
            July 2017
            : 7
            : 3
            © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017
            Funded by: FundRef, Universiti Sains Malaysia;
            Award ID: 1001/PTEKIND/81124
            Award Recipient :
            Original Article
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            © Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017


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