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      Preserved Endothelium-Dependent but Impaired β-Adrenergic Relaxation of the Resistance Vessels in Experimental Renal Failure

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          Abstract

          Chronic renal failure is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and reduced arterial elasticity. Only little information is available on the functional effects of uraemia on resistance arteries. Therefore, we studied the influence of renal failure on rat small mesenteric vessels. The responses of arterial rings were investigated in a Mulvany myograph 6 weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy or sham operation. The subtotal nephrectomy resulted in a 1.9-fold elevation of plasma urea nitrogen but was without significant effect on blood pressure. Endothelium-dependent relaxations, largely mediated via arterial K<sup>+</sup> channels, were preserved in the resistance vessels of uraemic rats. Endothelium-independent vasorelaxations, mediated via exogenous nitric oxide and the opening of ATP-sensitive K<sup>+</sup> channels, were also unchanged. However, the responses induced by isoprenaline were slightly reduced, indicating impaired relaxation via β-adrenoceptors in experimental renal failure.

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          Most cited references 6

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          The importance of the hyperpolarizing mechanism increases as the vessel size decreases in endothelium-dependent relaxations in rat mesenteric circulation.

          Endothelium-dependent relaxations are achieved by a combination of endothelium-derived prostacyclin (PGI2), nitric oxide (NO), and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). However, it remains to be fully clarified whether the relative contribution of these three mechanisms to endothelium-dependent relaxations varies as a function of the vessel size. This study was designed to clarify this point. Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations were examined in isolated blood vessels taken from the aorta and the proximal and distal mesenteric arteries of the rat. The contributions of PGI2, NO, and EDHF were evaluated by the inhibitory effects of indomethacin, N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in the presence of indomethacin, and KCl in the presence of indomethacin and L-NAME, respectively. The membrane potentials were recorded with microelectrodes. The expression of endothelial No synthase (eNOS) was examined by both immunostaining and immunoblotting. The contribution of PGI2 was negligible in three different-sized blood vessels. The contribution of NO was most prominent in the aorta, whereas that of EDHF was most prominent in the distal mesenteric arteries. The resting membrane potential was significantly deeper and the ACh-induced hyperpolarization was greater in the distal mesenteric arteries than those in the aorta. The expression of eNOS was the highest in the aorta and the lowest in the distal mesenteric arteries. These results indicate that the importance of EDHF increases as the vessel size decreases in endothelium-dependent relaxations in the rat mesenteric circulation.
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            Reduction of sympathetic hyperactivity by enalapril in patients with chronic renal failure.

            Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) reduces the risk of cardiovascular problems in patients with chronic renal failure. This effect may be due in part to a decrease in sympathetic nervous activity, but no direct evidence of such an action is available. We studied muscle sympathetic-nerve activity in 14 patients with hypertension, chronic renal failure, and increased plasma renin activity before, during, and after administration of the ACE inhibitor enalapril. Ten other patients with similar clinical characteristics were studied before and during treatment with the calcium-channel blocker amlodipine. Normal subjects matched for age and weight were included in both studies. At base line, mean (+/-SD) muscle sympathetic-nerve activity was higher in the group of patients who received enalapril than in the control subjects (35+/-17 vs. 19+/-9 bursts per minute, P=0.004). The baroreflex curve, which reflects changes in muscle sympathetic-nerve activity caused by manipulations of blood pressure with sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine, was shifted to the right in the patients, but baroreflex sensitivity was similar to that in the control subjects (-2.1+/-1.9 and -2.7+/-1.3 bursts per minute per mm Hg, respectively; P=0.36). A single dose of the sympatholytic drug clonidine caused a greater fall in blood pressure in the patients than in the control subjects. Treatment with enalapril normalized blood pressure and muscle sympathetic-nerve activity (at 23+/-10 bursts per minute) in the patients and shifted the baroreflex curve to the left, reflecting normal blood-pressure levels, without significantly changing sensitivity (-2.3+/-1.8 bursts per minute per mm Hg, P=0.96). In the patients who received amlodipine, treatment also lowered blood pressure but increased muscle sympathetic-nerve activity, from 41+/-19 to 56+/-14 bursts per minute (P=0.02). Increased sympathetic activity contributes to hypertension in patients with chronic renal disease. ACE inhibition controls hypertension and decreases sympathetic hyperactivity.
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              Chronic renal failure--a vasculopathic state.

               R K Luke (1998)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EXN
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2002
                2002
                09 October 2002
                : 10
                : 5-6
                : 348-354
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Tampere; Departments of bAnaesthesia and Intensive Care, cClinical Physiology and dInternal Medicine, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, and eDepartment of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
                Article
                65299 Exp Nephrol 2002;10:348–354
                10.1159/000065299
                12381919
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 29, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/65299
                Categories
                Original Paper

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