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      Challenges in identifying the best source of stem cells for cardiac regeneration therapy

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      Stem Cell Research & Therapy

      BioMed Central

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          Abstract

          The overall clinical cardiac regeneration experience suggests that stem cell therapy can be safely performed, but it also underlines the need for reproducible results for their effective use in a real-world scenario. One of the significant challenges is the identification and selection of the best suited stem cell type for regeneration therapy. Bone marrow mononuclear cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, resident or endogenous cardiac stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are some of the stem cell types which have been extensively tested for their ability to regenerate the lost myocardium. While most of these cell types are being evaluated in clinical trials for their safety and efficacy, results show significant heterogeneity in terms of efficacy. The enthusiasm surrounding regenerative medicine in the heart has been dampened by the reports of poor survival, proliferation, engraftment, and differentiation of the transplanted cells. Therefore, the primary challenge is to create clearcut evidence on what actually drives the improvement of cardiac function after the administration of stem cells. In this review, we provide an overview of different types of stem cells currently being considered for cardiac regeneration and discuss why associated factors such as practicality and difficulty in cell collection should also be considered when selecting the stem cells for transplantation. Next, we discuss how the experimental variables (type of disease, marker-based selection and use of different isolation techniques) can influence the study outcome. Finally, we provide an outline of the molecular and genetic approaches to increase the functional ability of stem cells before and after transplantation.

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          Most cited references 107

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          Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors.

          Differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to an embryonic-like state by transfer of nuclear contents into oocytes or by fusion with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Little is known about factors that induce this reprogramming. Here, we demonstrate induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic or adult fibroblasts by introducing four factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4, under ES cell culture conditions. Unexpectedly, Nanog was dispensable. These cells, which we designated iPS (induced pluripotent stem) cells, exhibit the morphology and growth properties of ES cells and express ES cell marker genes. Subcutaneous transplantation of iPS cells into nude mice resulted in tumors containing a variety of tissues from all three germ layers. Following injection into blastocysts, iPS cells contributed to mouse embryonic development. These data demonstrate that pluripotent stem cells can be directly generated from fibroblast cultures by the addition of only a few defined factors.
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            Minimal criteria for defining multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. The International Society for Cellular Therapy position statement.

            The considerable therapeutic potential of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) has generated markedly increasing interest in a wide variety of biomedical disciplines. However, investigators report studies of MSC using different methods of isolation and expansion, and different approaches to characterizing the cells. Thus it is increasingly difficult to compare and contrast study outcomes, which hinders progress in the field. To begin to address this issue, the Mesenchymal and Tissue Stem Cell Committee of the International Society for Cellular Therapy proposes minimal criteria to define human MSC. First, MSC must be plastic-adherent when maintained in standard culture conditions. Second, MSC must express CD105, CD73 and CD90, and lack expression of CD45, CD34, CD14 or CD11b, CD79alpha or CD19 and HLA-DR surface molecules. Third, MSC must differentiate to osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondroblasts in vitro. While these criteria will probably require modification as new knowledge unfolds, we believe this minimal set of standard criteria will foster a more uniform characterization of MSC and facilitate the exchange of data among investigators.
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              Multilineage potential of adult human mesenchymal stem cells.

              Human mesenchymal stem cells are thought to be multipotent cells, which are present in adult marrow, that can replicate as undifferentiated cells and that have the potential to differentiate to lineages of mesenchymal tissues, including bone, cartilage, fat, tendon, muscle, and marrow stroma. Cells that have the characteristics of human mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from marrow aspirates of volunteer donors. These cells displayed a stable phenotype and remained as a monolayer in vitro. These adult stem cells could be induced to differentiate exclusively into the adipocytic, chondrocytic, or osteocytic lineages. Individual stem cells were identified that, when expanded to colonies, retained their multilineage potential.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                dixpa159@student.otago.ac.nz
                rajesh.katare@otago.ac.nz
                Journal
                Stem Cell Res Ther
                Stem Cell Res Ther
                Stem Cell Research & Therapy
                BioMed Central (London )
                1757-6512
                13 March 2015
                13 March 2015
                2015
                : 6
                : 1
                Affiliations
                Department of Physiology, HeartOtago, Otago School of Medical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, 9010 New Zealand
                10
                10.1186/s13287-015-0010-8
                4357059
                © Dixit and Katare; licensee BioMed Central. 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                © The Author(s) 2015

                Molecular medicine

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