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      Core and Surface Characteristics for the Description and Theory of Personality Differences and Development : Core and surface personality characteristics

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      European Journal of Personality
      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Self-determination theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health.

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            A new Big Five: fundamental principles for an integrative science of personality.

            Despite impressive advances in recent years with respect to theory and research, personality psychology has yet to articulate clearly a comprehensive framework for understanding the whole person. In an effort to achieve that aim, the current article draws on the most promising empirical and theoretical trends in personality psychology today to articulate 5 big principles for an integrative science of the whole person. Personality is conceived as (a) an individual's unique variation on the general evolutionary design for human nature, expressed as a developing pattern of (b) dispositional traits, (c) characteristic adaptations, and (d) self-defining life narratives, complexly and differentially situated (e) in culture and social context. The 5 principles suggest a framework for integrating the Big Five model of personality traits with those self-defining features of psychological individuality constructed in response to situated social tasks and the human need to make meaning in culture. 2006 APA, all rights reserved
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              Stability and change of personality across the life course: the impact of age and major life events on mean-level and rank-order stability of the Big Five.

              Does personality change across the entire life course, and are those changes due to intrinsic maturation or major life experiences? This longitudinal study investigated changes in the mean levels and rank order of the Big Five personality traits in a heterogeneous sample of 14,718 Germans across all of adulthood. Latent change and latent moderated regression models provided 4 main findings: First, age had a complex curvilinear influence on mean levels of personality. Second, the rank-order stability of Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness, and Agreeableness all followed an inverted U-shaped function, reaching a peak between the ages of 40 and 60 and decreasing afterward, whereas Conscientiousness showed a continuously increasing rank-order stability across adulthood. Third, personality predicted the occurrence of several objective major life events (selection effects) and changed in reaction to experiencing these events (socialization effects), suggesting that personality can change due to factors other than intrinsic maturation. Fourth, when events were clustered according to their valence, as is commonly done, effects of the environment on changes in personality were either overlooked or overgeneralized. In sum, our analyses show that personality changes throughout the life span, but with more pronounced changes in young and old ages, and that this change is partly attributable to social demands and experiences. 2011 APA, all rights reserved
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                European Journal of Personality
                Eur. J. Pers.
                Wiley-Blackwell
                08902070
                May 2014
                May 2014
                : 28
                : 3
                : 231-243
                Article
                10.1002/per.1952
                41d5c2e8-5971-4c73-8ef1-b16e21882663
                © 2014

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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