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      Foreign Particles Contaminating Hemodialyzers and Methods of Removing Them by Rinsing

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          Abstract

          Foreign particles contaminating hemodialyzers constitute a risk of microembolism and allergic reactions in hemodialysis patients. We investigated the size distribution of particles, and the effects of striking headers of dialyzers and flow rates of rinsing saline on the elimination of foreign particles from dialyzers. Saline used for rinsing was filtered through a Millipore filter, and the particles thus removed were observed microscopically. We also checked changes in particle counts in a closed circuit consisting of a dialyzer and blood lines during 5 h of continuous circulation with a blood pump. The number of contaminating particles increased exponentially as their size decreased. For the sake of reproducibility we counted particles having diameters larger than 3.0 μm to monitor the rinsing efficiency. During rinsing, particles in the dialyzer were effectively eliminated by striking the headers of the dialyzer. We found that striking should be started immediately after the blood line is filled with saline, and that variation in saline flow rates in the range of 350–700 ml/min of saline does not affect the rinsing efficiency. By filtration of saline used for rinsing, particles, mostly ranging from 5 to 200 μm in length, of many shapes and colors were “found. Among them were fibers having a length of as much as a few millimeters. Once dialyzers were rinsed effectively, there was almost no change in particle counts in a closed circuit consisting of a dialyzer and blood lines. To rinse dialyzers effectively, at least 1,000 ml of saline are necessary, and striking the headers of dialyzers throughout the rinsing procedure is important.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          NEF
          Nephron
          10.1159/issn.1660-8151
          Nephron
          S. Karger AG
          1660-8151
          2235-3186
          1987
          1987
          05 December 2008
          : 46
          : 4
          : 343-346
          Affiliations
          aTakaramachi Clinic, Takaramachi, Takaoka City, Toyama; b1st Department of Internal Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Sugitani, Toyama City, Toyama, Japan
          Article
          184386 Nephron 1987;46:343–346
          10.1159/000184386
          3658061
          © 1987 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 4
          Categories
          Original Paper

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