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Technical note: How are NH<sub>3</sub> dry deposition estimates affected by combining the LOTOS-EUROS model with IASI-NH<sub>3</sub> satellite observations?

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      Abstract

      <p><strong>Abstract.</strong> Atmospheric levels of reactive nitrogen have increased substantially during the last century resulting in increased nitrogen deposition to ecosystems, causing harmful effects such as soil acidification, reduction in plant biodiversity and eutrophication in lakes and the ocean. Recent developments in the use of atmospheric remote sensing enabled us to resolve concentration fields of <span class="inline-formula">NH<sub>3</sub></span> with larger spatial coverage. These observations may be used to improve the quantification of <span class="inline-formula">NH<sub>3</sub></span> deposition. In this paper, we use a relatively simple, data-driven method to derive dry deposition fluxes and surface concentrations of <span class="inline-formula">NH<sub>3</sub></span> for Europe and for the Netherlands. The aim of this paper is to determine the applicability and the limitations of this method for <span class="inline-formula">NH<sub>3</sub></span>. Space-born observations of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the LOTOS-EUROS atmospheric transport model are used. The original modelled dry <span class="inline-formula">NH<sub>3</sub></span> deposition flux from LOTOS-EUROS and the flux inferred from IASI are compared to indicate areas with large discrepancies between the two. In these areas, potential model or emission improvements are needed. The largest differences in derived dry deposition fluxes occur in large parts of central Europe, where the satellite-observed <span class="inline-formula">NH<sub>3</sub></span> concentrations are higher than the modelled ones, and in Switzerland, northern Italy (Po Valley) and southern Turkey, where the modelled <span class="inline-formula">NH<sub>3</sub></span> concentrations are higher than the satellite-observed ones. A sensitivity analysis of eight model input parameters important for <span class="inline-formula">NH<sub>3</sub></span> dry deposition modelling showed that the IASI-derived dry <span class="inline-formula">NH<sub>3</sub></span> deposition fluxes may vary from <span class="inline-formula">∼</span> 20<span class="thinspace"></span>% up to <span class="inline-formula">∼50</span><span class="thinspace"></span>% throughout Europe. Variations in the <span class="inline-formula">NH<sub>3</sub></span> dry deposition velocity led to the largest deviations in the IASI-derived dry <span class="inline-formula">NH<sub>3</sub></span> deposition flux and should be focused on in the future. A comparison of <span class="inline-formula">NH<sub>3</sub></span> surface concentrations with in situ measurements of several established networks – the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), Meetnet Ammoniak in Natuurgebieden (MAN) and Landelijk Meetnet Luchtkwaliteit (LML) – showed no significant or consistent improvement in the IASI-derived <span class="inline-formula">NH<sub>3</sub></span> surface concentrations compared to the originally modelled <span class="inline-formula">NH<sub>3</sub></span> surface concentrations from LOTOS-EUROS. It is concluded that the IASI-derived <span class="inline-formula">NH<sub>3</sub></span> deposition fluxes do not show strong improvements compared to modelled <span class="inline-formula">NH<sub>3</sub></span> deposition fluxes and there is a future need for better, more robust, methods to derive <span class="inline-formula">NH<sub>3</sub></span> dry deposition fluxes.</p>

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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
            Atmos. Chem. Phys.
            Copernicus GmbH
            1680-7324
            2018
            September 13 2018
            : 18
            : 17
            : 13173-13196
            10.5194/acp-18-13173-2018
            © 2018

            https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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