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      Keratoconus: A review

      , ,
      Contact Lens and Anterior Eye
      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          Keratoconus is the most common primary ectasia. It usually occurs in the second decade of life and affects both genders and all ethnicities. The estimated prevalence in the general population is 54 per 100,000. Ocular signs and symptoms vary depending on disease severity. Early forms normally go unnoticed unless corneal topography is performed. Disease progression is manifested with a loss of visual acuity which cannot be compensated for with spectacles. Corneal thinning frequently precedes ectasia. In moderate and advance cases, a hemosiderin arc or circle line, known as Fleischer's ring, is frequently seen around the cone base. Vogt's striaes, which are fine vertical lines produced by Descemet's membrane compression, is another characteristic sign. Most patients eventually develop corneal scarring. Munson's sign, a V-shape deformation of the lower eyelid in downward position; Rizzuti's sign, a bright reflection from the nasal area of the limbus when light is directed to the limbus temporal area; and breakages in Descemet's membrane causing acute stromal oedema, known as hydrops, are observed in advanced stages. Classifications based on morphology, disease evolution, ocular signs and index-based systems of keratoconus have been proposed. Theories into the genetic, biomechanical and biochemical causes of keratoconus have been suggested. Management varies depending on disease severity. Incipient cases are managed with spectacles, mild to moderate cases with contact lenses and severe cases can be treated with keratoplasty. This article provides a review on the definition, epidemiology, clinical features, classification, histopathology, aetiology and pathogenesis, and management and treatment strategies for keratoconus. 2010 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Contact Lens and Anterior Eye
          Contact Lens and Anterior Eye
          Elsevier BV
          13670484
          August 2010
          August 2010
          : 33
          : 4
          : 157-166
          Article
          10.1016/j.clae.2010.04.006
          20537579
          41f4c906-f496-463d-86d6-ca355764a522
          © 2010

          https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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