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      The Predictability of Peak Oxygen Consumption Using Submaximal Ratings of Perceived Exertion in Adolescents

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          Abstract

          Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) extrapolation involves mathematically extending the submaximal relationship between RPE and oxygen consumption (VO 2) to maximal intensity. This technique allows practitioners to forego, potentially dangerous, maximal exertion testing while attaining accurate measures of maximal oxygen consumption used for exercise prescription. This method has been proven accurate in adults, but much less in known when applied to an adolescent population. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of the RPE extrapolation as method for estimating VO 2max in adolescents. Twenty-two healthy, asymptomatic adolescents performed a graded exercise test (GXT) to exhaustion. Heart rate and VO 2 were recorded throughout the bout with RPE being queried every two minutes using the Borg ( 620) RPE scale. Individual regression lines were fitted for each subject using RPE and VO 2 for RPE values up to 13,15, and 17. Theoretical maximal RPE values of 20 and 19 were entered into the equation to calculate an estimated VO 2max. Repeated measures ANOVA with planned contrasts showed that all VO 2max estimation methods significantly overpredicted measured VO 2max ( p < .001). Error analysis via Bland-Altman plots revealed large limits of agreement between the all methods, indicating large variability in error between estimated and measured VO 2max. The results suggest that submaximal RPE values using the Borg scale cannot be used to predict VO 2max in children due to the amount of error in the prediction equations. These inaccuracies could lead to potential under or over-prescription of exercise intensity and adverse effects on the person’s health.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Low cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong predictor for clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors in children independent of country, age and sex.

          Few studies have investigated the association between maximal cardiorespiratory capacity (fitness) and the clustered cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in children and youth from culturally diverse countries. This cross-sectional study examined the association between fitness and clustered CVD risk in children and adolescents from three European countries. Participants were 2845 randomly selected school children aged 9 or 15 years from Portugal (n=944), Denmark (n=849) and Estonia (n=1052). Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined during a maximal test on a cycle ergometer. CVD risk factors selected to assess the degree of clustering were the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, plasma triglycerides, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment), sum of four skinfolds, and systolic blood pressure. There was a strong association between cardiorespiratory fitness and the clustering of CVD risk factors. The odds ratios for clustering in each quartile of fitness, using the quartile with the highest fitness as reference, were 13.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.8-19.1]; 4.8 (95% CI 3.2-7.1) and 2.5 (95% CI 1.6-3.8), respectively, after adjusting for country, age, sex, socio-economic status, pubertal stage, family history of CVD and diabetes. In stratified analyses by age group, sex and country, similar strong patterns were observed. Low cardiorespiratory fitness is strongly associated with the clustering of CVD risk factors in children independent of country, age and sex.
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            Body fat percentile curves for U.S. children and adolescents.

            To date, several studies have been published outlining reference percentiles for BMI in children and adolescents. In contrast, there are limited reference data on percent body fat (%BF) in U.S. youth. The purpose of this study was to derive smoothed percentile curves for %BF in a nationally representative sample of U.S. children and adolescents. Percent fat was derived from the skinfold thicknesses of those aged 5-18 years from three cross-sectional waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) IV (1999-2000, 2001-2002, and 2003-2004; N=8269). The LMS (L=skewness, M=median, and S=coefficient of variation) regression method was used to create age- and gender-specific smoothed percentile curves of %BF. Growth curves are similar between boys and girls until age 9 years. However, whereas %BF peaks for boys at about age 11 years, it continues to increase for girls throughout adolescence. Median %BF at age 18 years is 17.0% and 27.8% for boys and girls, respectively. Growth charts and LMS values based on a nationally representative sample of U.S. children and adolescents are provided so that future research can identify appropriate cut-off values based on health-related outcomes. These percentiles are based on skinfolds, which are widely available and commonly used. Using %BF instead of BMI may offer additional information in epidemiologic research, fitness assessment, and clinical settings. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Children's OMNI Scale of Perceived Exertion: walking/running evaluation.

              The Children's OMNI-walk/run Scale of Perceived Exertion (category range, 0-10) was evaluated using male and female children (6-13 yr of age) during a treadmill graded exercise test. A cross-sectional, perceptual estimation paradigm using a walking/running test protocol was administered. Oxygen uptake (VO(2), mL x min(-1)), %VO(2max), ventilation (VE, L x min(-1)), respiratory rate (RR, breaths x min(-1)), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR, beats x min(-1)), V(E)/VO(2) ratio, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) measurements were made every minute throughout the test. Significant correlations were found between OMNI-walk/run Scale RPE responses and VO(2), %VO(2max), HR, V(E)/VO(2) ratio, and RR throughout the maximal treadmill exercise test. The strongest correlations were found between RPE and %VO(2max) (r = 0.41-0.60, P < 0.001) and HR (r = 0.26-0.52, P < 0.01). The psychophysiological responses provide validity evidence for use of the Children's OMNI-walk/run Scale over a wide range of exercise intensities during both walking and running.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Exerc Sci
                Int J Exerc Sci
                International Journal of Exercise Science
                Berkeley Electronic Press
                1939-795X
                2018
                01 October 2018
                : 11
                : 4
                : 1173-1183
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Kinesiology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA
                [2 ]Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La-Crosse, WI, USA
                Author notes
                [†]

                Denotes graduate student author

                [‡]

                Denotes professional author

                Article
                ijes-11-4-1173
                6179431
                Categories
                Original Research

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